Satyrs, Dragons, Unicorns, Whales and Cockatrices
There are many atheistic, Islamic and Christian sites that criticize the King James Bible and its use of such terms as satyrs, dragons and unicorns as being mythological creatures and therefore erroneous translations.
I find it of great significance that the only Bible these sites seem to pick on and criticize is the King James Bible. Modern Bible critics don't believe any Bible version or specific Hebrew or Greek text is the infallible words of God, and they don't defend their NASB, NIV, RSV, ESV, or NKJV as being totally accurate or inspired. The only Bible believed by multiplied thousands if not millions of Christians today to be the inerrant word of God is the King James Holy Bible, and this is why only the true Holy Bible is attacked.
John Ankerberg is such a Bible critic who says: "All translations are neither 100% perfect nor equally competent. Only the prophets and apostles in their original autographs were inerrant."
Of course, Mr. Ankerberg has never seen the originals; never once did the originals form an entire Book called The Bible, and he has no absolute standard by which he compares and judges the King James Bible, but these are minor considerations to be ignored by men like Mr. Ankerberg. He wants you to think he knows what God really said and that it is not what is found in the King James Bible. Mr. Ankerberg continues: "Finally, mythical animals, such as the unicorn, the satyr, the dragon, and the cockatrice represent translations acceptable to men in 1611, but today these translations have either been corrected or it is admitted the exact meaning is unknown."
Mr. Ankerberg has every right to his own opinion regarding this matter, but as we shall see, a whole lot of other "scholars" do not share Mr. Ankerberg's particular views on this subject.
The King James Bible is not at all alone in translating this specific Hebrew word as unicorn. In fact the word unicorn is found in Wycliffs translation 1395, Tyndale 1525 (he translated part of the Old Testament before he was killed), Coverdale’s Bible 1535, Taverner’s Bible, the Great Bible, the Bishops Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1599, the so called Greek Septuagint version, the Italian Diodati 1649, Las Sagradas Escrituras of 1569, as well as the Spanish Reina Valera of 1602, all of which preceeded the King James Bible. Today, other more modern versions that contain the word unicorn are the Spanish Reina Valera of 1909, the Spanish Las Sagradas Escrituras 1999 edition "unicornio", the French Martin 1744 "licornes", Luther's German 1545 and the updated Luther German Bible of 1912 "einhornshomer", the Russian Synodal version 1876, the Modern Greek translation of the Old Testament "monokeros"(not to be confused with the so called LXX), the Catholic Douay version of 1950, Darby’s translation of 1870, the 21st Century King James Version, the Third Millennium Bible 1998, Daniel Webster’s translation of the Bible 1833, Lamsa’s 1933 Bible translation of the Syraic Peshitta, and in the 1936 edition of the Massoretic Scriptures put out by the Hebrew Publishing Company of New York.
In this particular article I will not be dealing with the unicorn issue, but please see my article about them at:
KJB - "and SATYRS shall dance there." Isaiah 13:21
NKJV (ESV, NIV) - "WILD GOATS will caper there."
NASB - "and SHAGGY GOATS will frolic there."
Orthodox Jewish Bible 2011 - "and DEMONS shall dance there."
RSV 1971- "and there SATYRS will dance."
Common English Bible 2011 - GOAT DEMONS will dance there."
The word translated as SATYRS in the King James Bible and many others (as we will soon see) is the Hebrew word sa'ir #8163. It has several meanings, including "hairy" - "Esau my brother is a HAIRY man" Genesis 27:11; "goat" - "lay his hand upon the head of the GOAT" Leviticus 4:24; "devils" - "they shall no more offer their sacrifices unto DEVILS" Leviticus 17:7; "satyrs" - "and SATYRS shall dance there" Isaiah 13:21, and "rough" - "the ROUGH goat is the king of Greecia" Daniel 8:21.
Holman Bible Dictionary - Satyr - A hairy, demonic figure with the appearance of a goat, translating a Hebrew term otherwise translated, “hairy” or “male goat.” Bible students differ in interpreting passages as to whether a demonic figure or a normal animal is meant.
Smith's Bible Dictionary: Satyr - Isaiah 13:21; 34:14. The Hebrew word signifies "hairy" or "rough," and is frequently applied to "he-goats." In the passages cited it probably refers to demons of woods and desert places. Comp. Leviticus 17:7; 2 Chronicles 11:15.
Brown, Driver, Briggs has as its third definition: "satyr, demon (with he-goat's form, or feet, hairy demons inhabiting desolate ruins"
Gesenius has (1) hairy, rough (2) a he-goat (3) wood demons, SATYRS, resembling he-goats, inhabiting deserts.
Otto Kaiser wrote the following in his commentary to the Westminster Commentary series: "So the place will become the refuge of the desert animals, which occupy a curious position between the world of animals and that of demons, and whose presence helps to increase the uncanny nature of the ruins. Owls and ostriches will dwell there. Among them will leap the 'hairy ones', THE SATYRS or goat demons, whose cult, probably deriving from Canaanite popular belief, seems to have had a location in Jerusalem itself before the time of Josiah."
The word SATYRS is found twice in the King James Bible. In Scripture, the satyr seems to be a hairy, goat-like devil or demon, and is portrayed as a real spiritual entity, and not as a mythological creature.
Isaiah 13:21 "But wild beasts of the desert shall lie there; and their houses shall be full of doleful creatures; and owls shall dwell there, and SATYRS shall dance there."
Isaiah 34:14 "The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the SATYR shall cry to his fellow; the screech owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest."
Not only does the King James Bible use the word SATYRS in the Isaiah passages but so also do the following Bible versions:
The Geneva Bible 1587, The Bill Bible 1621, Calvin's Latin translation, the English Revised Version 1885, Webster's 1833 translation, The Longman Version 1841 "the SATYR shall cry to his fellow", the Brenton Translation 1851, the The Boothroyd Bible 1853, the Calvin Bible 1855, The Jewish Family Bible 1864, the Noyes Translation 1869, The Revised English Bible 1877, The Sharpe Bible 1883, The Modern Readers Bible 1907, The Improved Bible 1913, the Revised Standard Version 1946-1971, the Jewish Publication Society 1917 translation - "and SATYRS shall dance there.", the Hebrew Publishing Company of New York version of 1936, Moffatt's New Translation 1922, An American Translation by Smith and Goodspeed 1931, the Modern Reader's Bible by Richard Moulton 1907, the Jerusalem Bible 1968, the New American Bible 1970, the New Jerusalem Bible 1985, Lamsa's 1936 translation of the Syriac Peshitta - "and SATYRS shall dance there.", the Greek Septuagint, The New Jewish Version 1985, The Word of Yah 1993, the KJV 21st Century version 1994 - "and SATYRS shall dance there.", the Third Millennium Bible of 1998, The Word of Yah 1993, God's First Truth 1999, The Apostolic Polyglot Bible 2003 - "there shall rest SATYRS", The Judaica Press Complete Tanach 2004 - "and SATYRS shall dance there.", the Apostolic Bible 2006, Bond Slave Version 2009, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, the Jubilee Bible 2010, The New American Bible 2010, the Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Mebust) - "and shall meet with demons SATYRS" (Isa. 34:14), The New Brenton Translation 2012 - "there SATYRS shall rest", the Katapi New Standard Bible 2010 - "and SATYRS shall dance there", the Biblos Interlinear Bible 2013 - "and SATRYS shall dance there"
Jewish Virtual Library The Tanakh [Full Text] 1998
“and SATYRS shall dance there.”
The Modern Greek Bible also reads SATYRS - Isaiah 13:21 - "και σατυροι θελουσι χορευει εκει·" = "and SATYRS will dance there"
The recent Jewish translation called the Judaica Press Tanach 2004 also has the word satyr in it in Isaiah 34:14 -"And martens shall meet cats, and A SATYR shall call his friend, but there the lilith rests and has found for herself a resting place."
And again in 2 Chronicles 11:15 reading: "And he stationed for himself priests for the high places and for THE SATYRS, and for the calves that he had made." And again in Isaiah 13:21 - "and SATYRS shall dance there."; and again in Leviticus 17:7 -"And they shall no longer slaughter their sacrifices to THE SATYRS after which they stray."
Some foreign language Bibles that use the word “satyrs” are the 1861 Portuguese de Almeida - "e O SATIRO clamará ao seu companheiro", the Modern Portuguese Almeida 2009 - “e OS SATIROS pularão ali.” Isaiah 13:21. The Italian Riveduta 1927 - “i SATIRI vi balleranno”; the New Diodati 1991 (La Nuova Diodati) - “vi danzeranno i SATIRI”, Conferenza Episcopale Italiana - “vi danzeranno i SATIRI.” = “and SATYRS shall dance there.”; the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Spanish Jubilee Bible 2010, La Palabra 2010 -”allí saltarán SATIROS.”, the 2014 Romanian Fidela Bible - "şi SATIRI vor dansa acolo." = "and SATYRS shall dance there."
The Modern Greek translation as well uses the Greek word for satyr - “o saturos” in the Isaiah passages.
The Greek Septuagint (LXX) - Regardless of when you think this Greek translation of the Old Testament was made or by whom, this version is chock-full of satyrs, devils, dragons, and unicorns. The word unicorns is found in Numbers 23:22; Deuteronomy 33:17; Job 39:9; Psalms 22:21; 29:6; 78:69, and 92:10.
The satyrs are mentioned four times in the Greek Septuagint version. In Isaiah 13:22; 34:11 and 34:14 we read: "SATYRS shall dwell in it...devils shall dance there and SATYRS dwell there...and devils shall meet with SATYRS ...there shall SATYRS rest."
Revised Standard Version 1946 - 1971 "and SATYRS shall dance there." Isaiah 13:21
Leviticus 17:7 "So they shall no more slay their sacrifices for SATYRS, after whom they play the harlot. This shall be a statute for ever to them throughout their generations."
Not only does the RSV translate this word as SATYRS in Leviticus 17:7, but so also do the 1917 Jewish Publication Society translation, Moffatt's New Translation 1922, An American Translation by Smith and Goodspeed 1931, the New American Bible 1970, Jerusalem Bible 1966, and the New Jerusalem Bible 1985.
What about a modern "evangelical" version? Well, surprise! Let's take a look at the New American Standard Version 1972-1995 Update.
NASB 1995 - 2 Chronicles 11:15 "He set up priests of his own for the high places, for the SATYRS and for the calves which he had made."
2 Chronicles 11:15
Even among the various other modern versions there is little agreement on how to translate this term. What we see in the various versions is a wide variety of translations that include the following: Wycliffe 1395 - "hairy beasts", Coverdale 1535 "FIELD DEVILS", Great bible 1540, Matthew's bible 1549, Bishops' bible 1568, Geneva bible 1587, - "DEVILS", Living Bible 1971, Darby 1890 "HE GOATS", Jewish Publication Society 1917 - SATYRS", New Life Version 1969 - "GOAT GODS", NKJV 1982 - "THE DEMONS", Judaica Press Complete Tanach 2004 - "the SATYRS and calves he had made", Holman 2009, Complete Jewish Bible 1998 - 'GOAT DEMONS", Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010 - "the SATYRS", Common English Bible 2011, ESV 2011 - "GOAT IDOLS", Interlinear Hebrew- Greek Scriptures 2012 - "the SATYRS and calves which he had made.", International Standard Version 2014 - "the SATYRS and calves he had made."
Another term that is often criticized in the King James Bible by those who do not believe that any bible in any language today is the complete and 100% true word of God is the word “cockatrice”. This word is found four times in the King James Bible - Isaiah 11:8; 14:29; 59:5 and Jeremiah 8:17.
There are several definitions of this word and the Bible critics latch on to the least reasonable definition and ignore the others. Many dictionaries list the following definitions:
Webster's New World College Dictionary 4th edition -
2. a venomous serpent. Isa. 11:8.
Online Plain Text English Dictionary -
Cockatrice (n.) A fabulous serpent whose breath and look were said to be fatal. See Basilisk. (n.) A representation of this serpent. It has the head, wings, and legs of a bird, and tail of a serpent. (n.) A venomous serpent which which cannot now be identified. (n.) Any venomous or deadly thing.
Encyclopedia Britannica - "The term "cockatrice" is employed on four occasions in the English translation of the Bible, in all of which it denotes nothing more than an exceedingly venomous reptile."
Several dictionaries actually list one of the Bible verses and define it as: “a venemous serpent - Isaiah 11:8.
Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Copyright 1997 - cockatrice Definition #2. a venemous serpent. Isaiah 11:8
Notice carefully the wording of the King James Bible in passages like Jeremiah 8:17 - “For, behold, I will send serpents, cockatrices, among you, which will not be charmed, and they shall bite you, saith the LORD. “ There is no word “and” between ‘serpents, cockatrices, among you’, thus showing that the cockatrice is a type of serpent, not some fabulous dragon like creature hatched from a cock’s egg as some affirm.
Likewise in the Isaiah passages we see that what is hatched from the egg of a cockatrice is a viper, or a snake. “They hatch cockatrice' eggs, and weave the spider's web: he that eateth of their eggs dieth, and that which is crushed breaketh out into a viper.” - Isaiah 59:5.
We can see this simple equation between a ‘cockatrice’ and a ‘serpent’ in versions like Youngs and Wycliffe where these versions translate the Hebrew word as ‘cockatrice’ in Isaiah 11:8 and as ‘serpent’ in Jeremiah 8:17, thus equating the two words as synonyms.
Not only does the word ‘cockatrice’ occur in the King James Bible, but also in the following Bible translations: Wycliffe 1395, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops’ Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587 and 1599, The Bill Bible 1671, Websters 1833 translation (Jer. 8:17), The Jewish Family Bible 1864 - "they hatch COCKATRICE' eggs" (Isaiah 59:5), The Revised English Bible 1877, Young’s 1898, The Ancient Hebrew Bible 1907, The Word of Yah 1993, the KJV 21st Century version 1994, The Revised Webster Bible 1995, God's First Truth Yes Word translation 1999 - "The child while he suck, shall *have a desire to the serpents nest, and when he is weaned, he shall put his hand in to the Cockatrice den." (Isaiah 11:8), The Revised Geneva Bible 2005, the Bond Slave Version 2009, the English Jubilee Bible 2010, the Third Millennium Bible 1998, The Word of Yah 1993, God’s First Truth 1999, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010 and Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011.
The Ancient Hebrew Bible 1907
“… and the weaned child shall put his hand on THE COCKATRICE’ den.”
The Hebrew Transliteration Scriptures 2010
Jeremiah 8:17 - “For, behold, I will send serpents, COCKATRICES, among you, which [will] not [be] charmed, and they shall bite you, said ADONAI (יהוה).”
Jewish Virtual Library The Tanakh [Full Text] 1998
“and the weaned child shall put his hand on the COCKATRICE’ den.”
And this online Hebrew Interlinear Old Testament - "shall put his hand on the COCKATRICE' den."
It is really silly of those who criticize the King James Bible for using the word dragon. Don't these people ever look at their own bible versions first before they try to criticize the KJB? It seems they just find these goofy arguments on some anti-KJV site and post them as though they had proven some undeniable error in the Holy Bible.
Here are just a few verses from the most popular modern versions that show the use of the word DRAGON.
NASB 1995, ESV 2001
Isaiah 27:1 "In that day the LORD will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, With His fierce and great and mighty sword, Even Leviathan the twisted serpent; And He will kill the DRAGON who lives in the sea."
Isaiah 51:9 "Awake, awake, put on strength, O arm of the LORD; Awake as in the days of old, the generations of long ago. Was it not You who cut Rahab in pieces, Who pierced the DRAGON?"
Bible in Basic English 1961 - Isaiah 27:1 - “In that day the Lord, with his great and strong and cruel sword, will send punishment on Leviathan, the quick-moving snake, and on Leviathan, the twisted snake; and he will put to death THE DRAGON which is in the sea.”
Jewish Publication Society 1917 - Isaiah 27:1 “In that day the LORD with His sore and great and strong sword will punish leviathan the slant serpent, and leviathan the tortuous serpent; and He will slay THE DRAGON that is in the sea. “
The Holy Scriptures, The Hebrew Publishing Company, 1936 - Isaiah 27:1 “ In that day the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay THE DRAGON that is in the sea.”
Jewish Virtual Library The Tanakh [Full Text] 1998
“and he shall slay THE DRAGON that is in the sea.”
Dragons - The Judaica Press Tanach 2004 Commentary by Rashi
Isaiah 27:1. "On that day, the Lord shall visit with His hard and great and strong sword on leviathan the barlike serpent, and upon leviathan the crooked serpent, and He shall slay THE DRAGON that is in the sea."
The Text Analysis from Biblos.com shows the Hebrew of this verse as - 8577 hat·tan·nîn הַתַּנִּ֖ין the dragon
Numerous earlier English translations have "DRAGON" in Isaiah 27:1 and other verses including the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, the English Revised Version of 1885 - "and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea. Young's literal, Lamsa's 1936 translation of the Syriac Peshitta - "even Leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the DRAGON that is in the sea."
The Revised Standard Version 1946, 1973 - Isaiah 27:1 “In that day the LORD with his hard and great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent, and he will slay THE DRAGON that is in the sea.”
The New Revised Standard Version 1989 - Isaiah 27:1 “On that day the Lord with his cruel and great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent, and he will kill THE DRAGON that is in the sea.”
English Standard Version 2001 - “In that day the Lord with his hard and great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent, and he will slay THE DRAGON that is in the sea. “
The Message 2002 - Isaiah 27:1 - “At that time God will unsheathe his sword, his merciless, massive, mighty sword. He'll punish the serpent Leviathan as it flees, the serpent Leviathan thrashing in flight. He'll kill THAT OLD DRAGON that lives in the sea.”
New Live Version 1969 - “In that day the Lord will punish Leviathan, the large snake-like sea animal, with His sharp and great and powerful sword. He will punish Leviathan the turning snake, and kill THE BIG DRAGON that lives in the sea.”
The New Berkeley Version 1969 - Isaiah 27:1 “and shall slay the DRAGON which is in the sea.”
Lamsa's 1933 translation of the Syriac Peshitta - "...and he shall slay the DRAGON that is in the sea."
The 2009 Catholic Public Domain Version - Isaiah 51:1 - "Have you not struck the arrogant one and wounded THE DRAGON?"
Psalm 91:13 -"You will walk over the asp and the king serpent, and you will trample the lion and the DRAGON."
Jeremiah 14:6 "...like DRAGONS they drew in the wind."
Jeremiah 51:37 - "And Babylon will become a tumult, the habitation of DRAGONS."
New Living Translation 2007 - Isaiah 27:1 “ In that day the Lord will take his terrible, swift sword and punish Leviathan,[a] the swiftly moving serpent, the coiling, writhing serpent. He will kill THE DRAGON of the sea.”
Both the so called Septuagint AND the Modern Greek - Isaiah 27:1 - The Modern Greek Translation can be seen at this site here - http://unbound.biola.edu/
Εν εκεινη τη ημερα θελει παιδευσει ο Κυριος, δια της μαχαιρας αυτου της σκληρας και μεγαλης και δυνατης, τον Λευιαθαν, τον λοξοβατην οφιν, ναι, τον Λευιαθαν, τον σκολιον οφιν· και θελει αποκτεινει τον δρακοντα τον εν τη θαλασση.
The St. Joseph New American Bible 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985 - Isaiah 27:1 "...Leviathan the coiling serpent; he will kill THE DRAGON that is in the sea."
The Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, the Reina Valera of 1909, Reina Valera Version 1995, put out by the United Bible Society, and La Biblia de las Américas 1997, La Nueva Biblia de los Hispanos 2005 - Isaiah 27:1 “En aquel día Jehová castigará con su espada dura, grande y fuerte a Leviatán, la serpiente veloz, a Leviatán, la serpiente tortuosa; y matará AL DRAGON que está en el mar.”
The Portuguese Almeida Atualizada - Isaiah 27:1 -”Naquele dia o Senhor castigará com a sua dura espada, grande e forte, o leviatã, a serpente fugitiva, e o leviatã, a serpente tortuosa; e matará o dragão, que está no mar.
Portuguese O Livro 2000 - Isaiah 27:1 “Naquele dia o Senhor tomará a sua terrível e aguda espada para castigar a Leviatã, a veloz e fulminante serpente, tortuosa e ondeante, o dragão do mar.”
The Italian Conferenza Episcopale Italiana- Isaiah 27:1 - “In quel giorno il Signore punirà con la spada dura, grande e forte, il Leviatàn serpente guizzante, il Leviatàn serpente tortuoso e ucciderà IL DRAGO che sta nel mare.”
The Dutch Staten Vertaling Bible - "...en Hij zal DEN DRAAK, die in de zee is, doden. "
Martin Luther's German Bible 1545 and Luther's Revised German bible of 1912 - "und wird die Drachen im Meer erwürgen."
John Calvin's Latin translation - "et occidet DRACONEM qui est in mari."
Revelation 12:3-4 "And another sign appeared in heaven: behold, a great, fiery red DRAGON having seven heads and ten horns, and seven diadems on his heads. His tail drew a third of the stars of heaven and threw them to the earth. And the DRAGON stood before the woman who was ready to give birth, to devour her Child as soon as it was born."
Of course, some of the modern bible versions can't seem to get their act together and agree with each other. Here is a good example. Nehemiah 2:13:
KJB: And I went out by night by the gate of the valley, even before the DRAGON well, and to the dung port, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem, which were broken down, and the gates thereof were consumed with fire.
NASB, ESV: So I went out at night by the Valley Gate in the direction of the DRAGON'S Well and on to the Refuse Gate, inspecting the walls of Jerusalem which were broken down and its gates which were consumed by fire.
Other versions that read "DRAGON well" are: Wycliffe 1395, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishop's Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1599, Webster's 1833 translation, both the 1917, and 1936 Jewish translations, Lamsa's 1936 translation of the Syriac Peshitta, the Spanish Reina Valera 1602 and 1960, Douay version 1950, New American Bible 1970, Bible in Basic English 1970, NRSV 1989, New Jerusalem Bible 1985, Young's 1898, Revised Version 1881, the Message 2002, KJV 21st Century 1994, Third Millennium Bible 1998, the Contemporary English Version 1995, Lexham English Bible 2012 - "the gate of the valley by the DRAGON spring" (Nehemiah 2:13), "Are you not the one who cut Rahab in pieces, the one who pierced the sea-DRAGON?" (Isaiah 51:9)
The New Living Translation 2013 “Am I a sea monster or a DRAGON that you must place me under guard?” (Job 7:12), “He will kill the dragon of the sea.” (Isaiah 27:1), “the DRAGON of the Nile” (Isaiah 51:9).
International Standard Version 2014 - “So I went out during the night through the Valley Gate toward DRAGON'S Well” (Nehemiah 2:13), “he gliding serpent Leviathan—the coiling serpent Leviathan—and he will kill the DRAGON that’s in the sea.” (Isaiah 27:1), Revelation 12:3, 4, 7, 9, 13m 16 - “Michael and his angels fought with the DRAGON, and the DRAGON and its angels fought back.”
Modern English Version 2014 - “Their wine is the poison of DRAGONS and the deadly venom of cobras.” (Deuteronomy 32:33), “You broke the heads of the DRAGONS on the waters.” (Psalm 74:13), “He has swallowed me up like a DRAGON” (Jeremiah 51:34), “I am against you, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great DRAGON that lies in the midst of his rivers” (Ezekiel 29:3)
BUT, some like the NKJV and NIV don't agree with the others nor with each other!
NKJV: And I went out by night through the Valley Gate to the SERPENT Well and the Refuse Gate, and viewed the walls of Jerusalem which were broken down and its gates which were burned with fire.
Also reading SNAKE well are Rotherham's 1902 Emphatic bible, and God's Word Translation
NIV: By night I went out through the Valley Gate towards the JACKAL Well and the Dung Gate, examining the walls of Jerusalem, which had been broken down, and its gates, which had been destroyed by fire.
Also reading JACKAL are the RSV, Living Bible, World English Bible, and the ASV.1901.
Example of Dragons in the Bible.
Job 40:15-23 "Behold now behemoth, which I made with thee; he eateth grass as an ox. Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and his force is in the navel of his belly. He moveth his tail like a cedar: the sinews of his stones are wrapped together. His bones are as strong pieces of brass; his bones are like bars of iron. He is the chief of the ways of God: he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him. Surely the mountains bring him forth food, where all the beasts of the field play. He lieth under the shady trees, in the covert of the reed, and fens. The shady trees cover him with their shadow; the willows of the brook compass him about. Behold, he drinketh up a river, and hasteth not: he trusteth that he can draw up Jordan into his mouth."
After reading these verses from Job carefully, and considering the behemoth's cedar sized tail, it seems obvious that this is a description of a type of dinosaur. The word dinosaur is a relatively modern word, and did not exist until 1841. The word dinosaur comes from the Greek and means "terrifying lizard", and a valid description of an animal that was a 'terrifying lizard" would be the word "dragon"
Here is a very interesting site that documents many sightings of dinosaurs throughout history, complete with many fascinating pictures.http://s8int.com/dinolit1.html
Dragons - Dinosaurs
Dinosaurs and Humans Lived Contemporaneously
A documentary on dragons being dinosaurs. The ESV replaces dragon with jackal.
Read this short article on Dragons in history -
Here is another good site about Dragons and Dinosaurs. Lots of information.
If the King James Bible critics don't care for these "mythological creatures", as they call them, then what will they do with these animals found in their modern versions?
Isaiah 34:14 "The desert creatures will meet with the wolves, The hairy goat also will cry to its kind; Yes, the NIGHT MONSTER will settle there And will find herself a resting place."
Matthew 12:40 "for just as Jonah was three days and three nights in the belly of the SEA MONSTER, so will the Son of Man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth."
MANY HEADED MONSTERS
NIV, (ESV, NASB, NKJV) - Psalm 74:13-14 "It was you who split open the sea by your power; you broke THE HEADS OF THE MONSTER in the waters. It was you who crushed the HEADS OF Leviathan..."
NIV Job 7:12 "Am I the sea, or the MONSTER OF THE DEEP, that you put me under guard?" The NIV has the word "monster" six times, and one of these is a many headed monster!
Ezekiel 29:3 "Speak, and say, 'Thus says the Lord God: "Behold, I am against you, O Pharaoh king of Egypt, O GREAT MONSTER who lies in the midst of his rivers, Who has said, 'My River is my own; I have made it for myself.'
Ezekiel 32:2 "Son of man, take up a lamentation for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say to him: 'You are like a young lion among the nations, And you are like a MONSTER IN THE SEAS, Bursting forth in your rivers, Troubling the waters with your feet, And fouling their rivers."
And last of all we have that good old standby the "FIERY FLYING SERPENT". In the ASV, NASB, NKJV, RSV, NRSV, ESV, Darby, and many others we read: "and his fruit shall be a fiery flying serpent." When was the last time you saw one of these?
So, regarding the correctness of the translation of SATYR, Mr. Ankerberg can think what he wants, but there are a lot of Bible scholars who differ with his opinion. Again, the Bible versions that sometimes translate this Hebrew word as SATYR include both Jewish translations of 1917 and 1936, the Geneva Bible, Calvin’s Latin translation, the English Revised Version 1881, Moffatt's New Translation 1922, An American Translation by Smith and Goodspeed 1931, the New American Bible 1970, Jerusalem Bible 1966, and the New Jerusalem Bible 1985, the Revised Standard Version 1952, Webster's 1833, the Judaica Press Tanach, the Greek Septuagint, the KJV 21st Century, the Third Millenium Bible, and the NASB - New American Standard 1995 Update version. And there are a whole lot of Bible versions that speak of unicorns, dragons, flying serpents and monsters.
Mr. Ankerberg may not have a perfect Bible, but I and a lot of other Christians believe we do. We'll stick to the King James Holy Bible and accept no inferior substitues, thank you very much.
WHALES in Genesis 1:21, Job 7:12 and Ezekiel 32:2
[Note: Be sure to see the study on Matthew 12:40 where Jesus says that as Jonah was "three days and three nights in the WHALE'S belly, so He would be 3 days and nights in the heart of the earth."]
The Hebrew word tan-neen #8577 as "whales". This particular Hebrew word has many different meanings, and often the context is the only way to determine how it should be translated. All scholars are not at all agreed on how is should be translated in each text.
For example, looking at the NASB complete concordance, it tells us that the Hebrew word means "serpent, dragon, sea monster." While the NIV lists among the 15 uses of this word in the Old Testament - "monster, snake, creatures of sea, great sea creature, jackal, and monster of the deep." The King James Bible has translated this one Hebrew word as: "dragon (19 times), whale (3 times - Genesis 1:21, Job 7:12 and Ezekiel 32:2), serpent (3 times) and as the sea monsters (one time)
Among the various modern English versions we have "the great SEA MONSTERS" (NASB, St. Joseph NAB, New Jerusalem); "great CREATURES OF THE SEA" (NKJV, NIV, ESV, Catholic The Sacred Scriptures 2009), "the great SEA BEASTS" (Bible in Basic English) and "the great DRAGONS" (Jubilee bible 2000)
Some scholars say it can also mean "crocodiles" - "WHALES, crocodiles, and other sea monsters" (Delitzsch)
Jamieson, Fausset and Brown tell us the Hebrew word means "WHALES, sharks and crocodiles".
John Gill comments on Genesis 1:21 - "large fishes are undoubtedly meant, and the WHALE being of the largest sort, the word is so rendered."
Matthew Poole comments: “Great WHALES, those vast sea monsters known by that name, though elsewhere this word be applied to great dragons of the earth.”
Bensen Commentary - “The Hebrew word here rendered WHALES is sometimes put to signify great dragons of the wilderness; but it undoubtedly here means some very large inhabitants of the waters, and PROBABLY WHAT WE CALL WHALES, whose astonishing bulk and prodigious strength are amazing proofs of the power and glory of the Creator.”
Keil and Delitzsch Commentary on the Old Testament - "the great "tanninim," - lit., the long-stretched, from תּנן, to stretch - WHALES, crocodiles, and other sea-monsters."
John Calvin translated the verse into Latin as "God created great WHALES" - "Et creavit Deus cetos mangos" and commented - “God then, it is said, created WHALES (balaenas) and other fishes”
Let's take a look at the first mention of "whales" in the King James Bible. It is found in Genesis 1:21 "And God created great WHALES, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good."
Not only does the King James Bible translate the Hebrew word tan-neen as "whales" here but so do the following Bible translations - the so called Greek Septuagint -τὰ κήτη τὰ μεγάλα, the Latin Vulgate 405 A.D. "cete grandia", Wycliffe Bible 1395 - "grete whallis", Tyndale 1534 - "And God created greate whales", Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568 - "And God created great whales", Webster's translation 1833, Douay Version 1950, The Message 2002 - "God created the huge WHALES", the Third Millennium Bible 1998 and the Complete Apostle's Bible 2005 - "And God made great WHALES".
Among foreign language Bibles that also translated this word a "great WHALES" in Genesis 1:21 are Luther's German Bible 1545 - "Und Gott schuf große Walfische", the Spanish Cipriano de Valera 1602, Revisada 1865, the Spanish Reina Valera 1909, the Reina Valera Gómez 2010 - "Y creó Dios las grandes BALLENAS", the French Martin 1744 - "Dieu donc créa les grandes baleines", the Italian Diodati 1649 - "Iddio adunque creò le grandi baleen", the Portuguese A Biblia Sagrada and the Almdeida Corregida - "E Deus criou as grandes bales", the Hungarian Karoli Bible - "És teremté Isten a nagy vízi állatokat" = "and God created great whales", the Esperanto Bible - "Kaj Dio kreis la grandajn balenojn", the Afrikaans Bible 1953 - "En God het die groot seediere geskape", the Finnish Bible 1776 - "Ja Jumala loi suuret valaskalat" = "and God created great whales", the Russian Synodal Translation 1876 - "И сотворил Бог рыб больших" = "and God created great whales", the Norwegian Det Norsk Bibelselskap 1930 - "Og Gud skapte de store sjødyr" = "and God created great whales.", the Dutch Staten Vertaling Bible - "En God schiep de grote walvissen" = "and God created great whales", the Czech BKR bible - "I stvořil Bůh velryby veliké" = "and God created great whales", the Korean Bible - "하나님이 큰 물고기와 물에서", the Maori Bible - "Na ka hanga e te Atua nga tohora nunui" = "And God created great WHALES", and the Smith and van Dykes Arabic Bible - "التنانين العظام وكل ذوات الانفس الحية الدبّابة التي فاضت بها", the Somali Bible 2008 - " Oo Ilaah wuxuu abuuray nibiriyada badda oo waaweyn" and the 2014 Romanian Fidela Bible - "Şi Dumnezeu a creat baleen" and the Modern Greek Bible - "Και εποιησεν ο Θεος τα κητη τα μεγαλα" = "And God created the great WHALES."
The King James Bible is always right.
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Deut 32:33 Their wine is the poison of dragons, and the cruel venom of asps.
ESV, NIV, TNIV, HCSB, CEV "serpents"
(NIV, TNIV, HCSV, CEV also change asps to cobras)
Job 30:29 I am a brother to dragons, and a companion to owls.
ESV, NIV, TNIV, HCSB, CEV "jackals"
(ESV, HCSV also change owls to ostriches).
Ps 74:13 Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength: thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters.
ESV, NIV, TNIV, HCSB, CEV "monsters"
Ps 91:13 Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet.
ESV, NIV, TNIV, HCSB, "serpent" CEV "snakes"
Ps 148:7 Praise the LORD from the earth, ye dragons, and all deeps:
ESV, NIV, TNIV, CEV "sea creatures" HCSB "sea monsters"
Isa 27:1 In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent, even leviathan that crooked serpent; and he shall slay the dragon that is in the sea.
NIV, TNIV, HCSB, CEV "monster"
Isa 35:7 And the parched ground shall become a pool, and the thirsty land springs of water: in the habitation of dragons, where each lay, shall be grass with reeds and rushes.
ESV, NIV, TNIV, HCSB, "jackals" CEV "wild dogs"
Jer 10:22 Behold, the noise of the bruit is come, and a great commotion out of the north country, to make the cities of Judah desolate, and a den of dragons.
ESV, NIV, TNIV, HCSB, CEV "jackals"
Jer 14:6 And the wild asses did stand in the high places, they snuffed up the wind like dragons; their eyes did fail, because there was no grass.
ESV, NIV, TNIV, HCSB, "jackals". The CEV at least realized it was absurd to have jackals snuffing up wind, so they simply omitted the creature.
Jer 51:34 Nebuchadrezzar the king of Babylon hath devoured me, he hath crushed me, he hath made me an empty vessel, he hath swallowed me up like a dragon, he hath filled his belly with my delicates, he hath cast me out.
ESV , CEV , HCSB "monster" NIV, TNIV "serpent"
Ezek 29:3 Speak, and say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for myself.
NIV, TNIV, HCSB "monster" CEV "crocodile"
GEM (Genesis Evidence Ministry)