Another King James Bible Believer

Textual Criticism and the Book of Romans

The Fickle Nature of Textual Criticism in the Book of Romans Using the So Called "Oldest and Best Manuscripts"

The book of Romans, just as every other New Testament book, is full of examples where the two so called oldest and best manuscripts (Sinaiticus and Vaticanus) are at odds with each other. Most Christians today do NOT believe that ANY Bible in ANY language IS or ever has been the complete, inspired and 100% true preserved words of the living God.



 

 

The purpose of this textual study in the book of Romans is to show in black and white the true and unsettling nature of what today's "scholars" call the "science" of Textual Criticism. No reading is sure. Everything is unsettled and in a state of constant flux. And the end result is that more and more people end up abandoning the belief in the Inerrancy of Scripture.

 

Wilbur Pickering, ThM. PhD. writes in his book The Identity of the New Testament Text, 2014 -  

"Bruce Metzger said, "It is understandable that in some cases different scholars will come to different evaluations of the significance of the evidence".4 A cursory review of the writings of textual scholars suggests that Metzger's "in some cases" is decidedly an understatement. In fact, even the same scholars will vacillate, as demonstrated by the "MORE THAN FIVE HUNDRED CHANGES" introduced into the third edition of the Greek text produced by the United Bible Societies as compared with the second edition (the same committee of five editors prepared both).

K. Aland, M. Black, C.M. Martini, B.M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, eds., The Greek New Testament, third edition (New York: United Bible Societies, 1975), p. viii. Although this edition is dated 1975, Metzger's Commentary upon it appeared in 1971. The second edition is dated 1968. IT THUS APPEARS THAT IN THE SPACE OF THREE YEARS ('68-'71), WITH NO SIGNIFICANT ACCRETION OF NEW EVIDENCE, THE SAME GROUP OF FIVE SCHOLARS CHANGED THEIR MIND IN OVER 500 PLACES. IT IS HARD TO RESIST THE SUSPICION THAT THEY WERE GUESSING."

http://www.walkinhiscommandments.com/Pickering/Miscellaneous/Pickering%20-%20Identity%20of%20the%20NT%204th%20edit..pdf 

 

To see many more concrete examples of what the allegedly "oldest and best" manuscripts are really like, see this comparative study here -

http://brandplucked.webs.com/oldestandbestmss.htm

May I also recommend the article called "Is King James Bible Onlyism Scriptural? -

http://brandplucked.webs.com/kjbonlyismscriptural.htm

Without exception, any modern version promoter who tries to tell you that our King James Bible is based on just a few late manuscripts, and that in the last few years we have made many important textual discoveries, is full of hot air. He himself does not believe that any Bible in any language is now the inspired, complete and 100% true "book of the LORD".

We don't have to look far before we run into the first example of where these two false witnesses, upon which most modern versions are based, disagree with each other.

The first example is found in the Romans 1:1. I admit that this particular textual change does not alter the essential meaning of the verse, but it does begin to chip away at the idea of an inspired Bible. God does not inspire two different readings in the same place. Either one is what God inspired and the other is not, or neither one of them is what God caused to be written. Keep going in the study and you will see that the differences become far more pronounced and critical.

Romans 1:1 reads: "Paul, a servant of JESUS CHRIST, called to be an apostle...". Here the majority of all Greek texts read JESUS CHRIST, and so does Sinaiticus. In fact, so too do Wycliffe, Tyndale, Coverdale, Bishops', the Geneva Bible, the RV of 1881, ASV of 1901, Douay, NKJV, and even the RSV and NRSV. So too does the 2014 ISV (International Standard Version.)

However Vaticanus reverses the order and says: CHRIST JESUS and so too do the NASB, NIV, NET and the ESV. The same is seen among the various Catholic Versions. The earlier Douay-Rheims of 1582 and the Douay of 1950 both read JESUS CHRIST,  but the 1970 St. Joseph NAB and the New Jerusalem bible of 1985 now says CHRIST JESUS, following the Vatican mss.

Romans 1:16 KJB - “ For I am not ashamed of the gospel OF CHRIST: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek.”


ESV (NIV, NASB, NET, Catholic Versions, Jehovah Witness NWT) - “For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is the power of God for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek.”


The reading of “the gospel OF CHRIST” -  το ευαγγελιον του χριστου - is that of the Reformation Bibles in all languages, and the Majority of all manuscripts including the uncial copies of K, L, P, Psi and D correction.  It is also found in Lamsa’s 1933 translation of the Syriac Peshitta.  


“The gospel OF CHRIST” is the reading found in the Greek texts of Erasmus, Stephanus 1550, Beza 1598, Elzevir 1624 , Scrivener 1894 and the Modern Greek Bible - Διοτι δεν αισχυνομαι το ευαγγελιον του Χριστου


And the Modern Hebrew Bible - כי אינני בוש מבשורת המשיח באשר גבורת אלהים היא לתשועת כל המאמין ליהודי בראשונה וכן גם ליוני׃ = “gospel of the Messiah”


The omission of the words “OF CHRIST” is that of the Egyptian manuscripts of Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, A and C.


Bibles that read like the King James Bible - “For I am not ashamed of the gospel OF CHRIST” are  Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, The Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549, the Bishops’ Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, the Beza N.T. 1599, Wesley’s N.T. 1755, Worsley Version 1770,  Haweis N.T. 1795, the Thomson Bible 1808, Webster’s Bible 1833, The Commonly Received Version 1851, Julia Smith Translation 1855, Calvin Bible 1856, the Smith Bible 1876, Young’s 1898, the Clarke N.T. 1913,  the Living Bible 1971, the NKJV 1982, the Amplified bible 1987 edition, The Word of Yah 1993, Third Millennium Bible 1998, the Lawrie Translation 1998, The Koster Scriptures 1998 - “the good news of the Messiah”, The Last Days N.T. 1999, The World English Bible 2000, the Tomson N.T. 2002, The Complete Apostle’s Bible 2003,  The Pickering N.T. 2005, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005 (Vince Garcia), Green’s literal 2005, Bond Slave Version 2009,  the Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), the Jubilee Bible 2010, the Conservative Bible 2011, the Far Above All Translation 2011, The Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2011 - “I am not ashamed of the good news of Mashiach”, The Hebraic Roots Bible 2012, The New Living Translation 2013, The English Majority Text Version 2013, The Translators Translation 2014, The Hebrew Names Version 2014, The Modern Literal N.T. 2014 and the Modern English Version 2014.


Foreign Language Bibles


Foreign language Bibles that also read “the gospel OF CHRIST”  are Luther’s German Bible 1545 and the German Schlachter Bible 2000 - “des Evangeliums von Christo”, the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano de Valera 1602 and the Reina Valera 1995, the French Martin Bible 1744, Ostervald 1998 and the French Louis Segond 2007, the Italian Diodati 1649, La Nuova Diodati 1991 and Italian Riveduta 2006 - “non mi vergogno dell'evangelo di Cristo”, the Portuguese O Livro 2000 and Portuguese Almeida Corrigida 2009,  the Hungarian Karoli Bible - “a Krisztus evangyéliomát”, the Norwegian En Levende Bok 1988 - “evangeliet om Kristus”, the Polish Updated Gdansk Bible 2013 - “ewangelii Chrystusa”, the Romanian Fidela Bible 2014, the Russian Synodal Bible - “благовествования Христова”, the Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos Bible 1998 - “ebanghelyo patungkol kay Cristo, the Czech Kralicka Bible - “evangelium Kristovo”, the Danish Bible - “Christi Evangelium”, the Finnish Bible 1776 - “Kristuksen evankeliumia”, the Smith & van Dyke Arabic bible - “لاني لست استحي بانجيل المسيح لانه قوة الله للخلاص لكل من يؤمن لليهودي اولا ثم لليوناني.”, Verne’s Contemporary Bulgarian Bible - “благовестието Христово”, the Afrikaans Bible 1953 - “evangelie van Christus”, the Dutch Staten Vertaling Bible - “Evangelies van Christus “.


So, you have your choice - either the Reformation Bible text or the Vatican Versions


Undeniable Proof the ESV, NIV, NASB, Holman Standard, NET etc. are  the new "Vatican Versions"


http://brandplucked.webs.com/realcatholicbibles.htm 

Romans 1:16 "...to the Jew FIRST (prooton) and also to the Greek." Here Vaticanus omits the word FIRST, but it is found in Sinaiticus and in most versions.

 

Romans 1:25 KJB - “Who changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature MORE THAN the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.”


NKJV - who exchanged the truth of God for the lie, and worshiped and served the creature RATHER THAN the Creator, who is blessed forever. Amen.”


Some Bible critics complain about and criticize the King James Bible for how they translated this verse. Some object to “A lie” telling us it should be “THE lie”, but the KJB is right.  


Even though there is a definite article before “lie”, the definite article in Greek is not used like it is in English.  Even the NKJV, NASB, ESV, NIV, Holman, NET do not translate the definite article before the word “lie” in places like John 8:44 - “when he speaketh a lie” and Ephesians 4:29 - “Wherefore putting away lying”


There are a lot more lies in this world than just one lie.  The KJB is right, as always.


But the more important issue to some is the difference between the KJB’s “MORE THAN the Creator” and the NKJV’s “RATHER THAN the Creator”. 


The Bible correctors tell us that “more than” implies that there is at least some degree of worship and serving the Creator on the part of natural man, but that the NKJV does not teach this.


The fact is, the natural man DOES have a natural religion and he DOES know something of the true God just from creation itself.  


Verse 20 tells us that the natural man clearly sees and understands that there IS a Creator just from looking at the creation He has made, and they recognize “his eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse.” 


And fallen, sinful man does, for the most part, have a form of “religion”.  But they “changed the glory of the incorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and fourfooted beasts, and creeping things.” V. 23. 


They still have a form of worship and service to God, but they have perverted it.


Some translations say “they worshipped and served the creature ABOVE the Creator”.  Among these are John Wesley’s N.T. 1755, and the Lawrie Translation 1998.


The Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011 says: “they reverenced and served the created thing BEYOND the one having created it”, and so does the Interlinear Greek N.T. 1997 by Larry Pierce.  


The Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol) says: “revered and offer divine service to the creation BESIDE the One creating”


Wycliffe’s Bible 1395 had “RATHER THAN the Creator”, so the KJB translators were aware of this way of translating the verse, but they chose to do it differently on purpose.


Not only does the King James Bible tell us in Romans 1:25 that fallen man “changed the truth of God into a lie, and worshipped and served the creature MORE THAN the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amen.” but so do the following Bible translations -


Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, The Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549,  the Bishops’ Bible 1568, Mace N.T. 1729, Whiston’s N.T 1745, Webster’s Translation 1833, Murdock Translation 1852 “much more than the Creator”, Sawyer N.T. 1858, The Emphatic Diaglott 1865,  American Bible Union N.T. 1865, Darby’s Translation 1890, The Twentieth Century New Testament 1904, The New Testament Translated from the Sinaitic Manuscript 1918 (Henry Anderson), Lamsa’s Translation of the Syriac Peshitta 1933, The Word of Yah 1993, the 21st Century KJV 1994, The Third Millennium Bible 1998, God’s First Truth 1999, Green’s Literal Translation 2005, The Resurrection Life New Testament 2005 (Vince Garcia), The Positive Infinity N.T. 2005, the  Bond Slave Version 2009, the Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010 - “worshipped and served the HaBri'ah (Creation) MORE THAN the Creator, who is blessed for ever. Amein.",  The Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, the Conservative Bible 2011, The Far Above All Translation 2011, and the Hebraic Roots Bible 2012.

 

Romans 2:16 "In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men by JESUS CHRIST according to my gospel." Again the reading of JESUS CHRIST is that of the majority of all texts including Sinaiticus correction and A. It is also the reading of Wycliffe, Bishops, Tyndale, Coverdale, Geneva, NKJV, the RV, ASV, NRSV and the NIV. This time the NIV went the other way from what it did in verse One and now goes with the Sinaiticus reading instead of the Vatican.

However Vaticanus again reverses the order and says CHRIST JESUS, and now also do the NASB, RSV, NET and the ESV. Notice that the previous ASV read like the KJB, but then the NASB changed it, and that the RSV and ESV now follow Vaticanus, but the NRSV didn't.  Likewise the Catholic Douay 1950 goes with JESUS CHRIST, then the 1970 St. Joseph changed it to CHRIST JESUS, but then the 1985 New Jerusalem went back to JESUS CHRIST. This whole process is very "scientific" don't ya know.

Romans 3:2 "...chiefly, BECAUSE (gar) unto them were committed the oracles of God." Here the little word BECAUSE is found in the majority of all texts as well as Sinaiticus, and is in the Geneva Bible, the Douay-Rheims, the NKJV, NRSV and Youngs but Vaticanus omits it and so do the NASB, NIV, ESV, NET and the newer Catholic versions like the St. Joseph NAB and New Jerusalem bible.

 

Romans 3:26 - "the justifier of him which believeth in Jesus."  

The reason I mention this verse is because some bible agnostics (they don't know for sure what God wrote in His Book) and unbelievers in the inerrancy of ANY Bible in any language, have claimed that the KJB translators did a poor job of translating this verse.

It has nothing to do with variant readings, but rather with the way they translated the Greek phrase - και δικαιουντα τον εκ πιστεως ιησου and particularly the last four words - τον εκ πιστεως ιησου.  Admittedly the KJB translation of "him  which believeth in Jesus" is not a strictly literal rendering, but it IS an accurate translation.  NO Bible version always translates in a strictly literal manner. It would come out very wooden and incomprehensible in many places if it were.

 "Literally" this phrase would be something like "and justifying the one of (out of) faith of Jesus".  Most bible versions "paraphrase" or add words to this phrase so that it sounds right in English and yet communicates the meaning.

As the verse stands "literally" it can easily lead to the wrong theology, and in fact, a few modern versions have ended up doing this very thing. What does it mean when it says that God justifies the one "OUT OF (or, FROM) FAITH OF JESUS"?  

Does this mean that because Jesus had faith (or, faithfulness) then everybody is therefore justified because of His faith?  Some versions have translated it this way, and that is a false theology. All the way through the book of Romans, the apostle Paul has been laying out a consistent and logical argument to show that a man is not justified (shown to be righteous) by the works of the law, but by believing (having faith in) the gospel of the grace of God.

Let's take a look at how the various Bible translations have handled this phrase.

The ASV 1901, NKJV, NASB, ESV 2011 have - "and the justifier of him that hath faith in Jesus."  There is no word for "hath" nor for "in".

The NIVs have two different ways they translated the verse and both are “paraphrases”.  The 1973 NIV said “who justifies THE MAN who HAS faith IN Jesus.”

But the 2011 NIV says: “the one who justifies THOSE who HAVE faith IN Jesus.”


There is no word for “man” or “those” or “has" or "have” or for “in”. But they both communicate the sense of the passage.

 

The Thompson Bible 1808 - "he is the justifier of him who is a believer in Jesus."


New Life Version 1969 - “God makes anyone right with Himself who puts his trust in Jesus.”


God’s Word Translation 1995 - “a God who approves of people who believe in Jesus.”  (similar to the KJB)


The Worldwide English New Testament 1998 - “he makes right any person who believes in Jesus.” (much like the KJB)


The Voice 2012 - “He makes right those who trust and commit themselves to Jesus.”

 

The Last Days Bible 1999 - "being the One who forgives all who come to Him, believing and trusting in Jesus."


International Standard Version 2014 - “that he justifies anyone who has the faithfulness of Jesus.”  


No word for “has” and the word is “faith” not “faithfulness”.  This is actually heresy and works salvation.  If you and I have to be as faithful as Jesus was in order to be justified, then there is NO hope for any of us.


Names of God Bible 2011 - “a God who approves of people who believe in Yeshua.”  

 

The New Living Translation 2013 - “he declares sinners to be right in his sight when they believe in Jesus."

 

Another loose paraphrase, but it communicates the right idea.

 

The Easy English Bible 2010 - "If any person believes Jesus, God accepts that person as right."

 

The Resurrection Life New Testament 2005 (Vince Garcia) - "placing in right standing an otherwise condemned sinner who believes in Jesus!" (another paraphrase, but it is similar to the KJB)

 

The Translator’s Bible 2014 - “and he shows that he is justly able to erase the record of sins for everyone who trusts/believes in Jesus.”


Dan Wallace’s goofy NET version 2006 reads: “the justifier of the one WHO LIVES BECAUSE OF Jesus’ FAITHFULNESS.”  


This complete paraphrase misses the whole point of what the verse means. It totally misses the fact that God justifies us by faith or by believing in Jesus, and makes it Jesus’s own faithfulness that justifies us.

 

The Pioneers’ N.T. 2014 - “the one who creates justice out of the faithfulness of Jesus.“ (Totally misses the point)  

 

The King James Bible translators were not unaware of different ways to translate this verse. In fact, the Geneva Bible reads - "that hee might be iust, and a iustifier of him which is of the faith of Iesus."  

 

But once again there is no literal word for "of" or "which" or "is" or "the".  And again, what does it mean to be "of the faith of Jesus"?  Is this teaching that because Jesus had faith, then we are all automatically justified?  

 

So we see that the King James Bible translators made a deliberate and conscious choice to translate the phrase the way they did. They were not just blindly following in the footsteps of previous English translations.


Romans 3:26 - "the justifier of HIM WHICH BELIEVETH IN JESUS"


Agreeing with the King James Bible's "the justifier of HIM WHICH BELIEVETH IN JESUS" are Tyndale 1534, The Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568 - "the iustifier of hym which beleueth on Iesus.", The Bill Bible 1671, Mace New Testament 1729, Whiston's New Testament 1745, Worsley Version 1770, John Wesley's N.T. 1790, The Wakefield N.T. 1820 - "while he justifies him who believes in Jesus.", Webster's translation 1833, The New Covenant N.T. 1836, The Pickering N.T. 1840, The Hussey N.T. 1845, The Commonly Received Version 1851 - "the justifier of him who believes in Jesus", The Boothroyd Bible 1853, The Calvin Bible 1856, The Revised N.T. 1862, American Bible Union N.T. 1865, Anderson N.T. 1865 - "while he justifies him who believes in Jesus.", The Revised English Bible 1877, The Corrected English N.T. 1905, Weymouth N.T. 1912, The Clarke N.T. 1913, The Improved Bible 1913, The Plain English N.T. 1963 - "the man that believes in Jesus.", The Word of Yah 1993 - "the justifier of him who believes in Yashua", KJV 21st Century Version 1994, The Third Millennium Bible 1998, the Lawrie Translation 1998, God's First Truth 1999, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life New Testament 2005 - “sinner who believes in Jesus!”,The Bond Slave Version 2008, the Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010 - "the justifier of him which believes in Yehoshua", the Conservative Bible 2010 - "he who believes in Jesus", and the BRG Bible 2012. 


Many other modern versions have likewise translated the phrase in much the same way as the King James Bible by saying: "him that HAS FAITH IN Jesus." These include such versions as the RV, ASV, NASB, NIV, RSV, NRSV, ESV, NKJV, and the Holman Standard version.


The 2010 Online Interlinear Greek N.T. (André de Mol) says: "the one justifying out of belief of Jesus"


It is abundantly obvious that many other Bible translators are not in agreement with the man who insists the KJB reading is wrong here in Romans 3:26. It is also abundantly clear that the KJB critic himself does not believe that any bible in any language on this earth today is now the inerrant words of God. Instead, he has only an imaginary, mystical, and not yet in print "bible", based on his own understanding, to recommend to anyone.

 

 

Romans 4:17 - King James Bible - “(As it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who quickeneth the dead, and calleth THOSE THINGS WHICH BE NOT AS THOUGH THEY WERE.”


καλουντος τα μη οντα ως οντα


David Middleton is one of the most ignorant of Bible correctors I have seen on the internet. He is continually putting his foot in his mouth as he plays with his school boy Greek and claims there are lots of horrible mistakes and errors in the King James Bible. And just like James White, his videos do not allow for any Comments to be made that might refute his silliness.


One of the many alleged errors he points out in the King James Bible is found in Romans 4:17. This Bible critic tells us that the phrase “those things which be not as though they WERE.” is completely wrong in the King James Bible because "both verbs are in the present tense, not in the PAST TENSE as the King James Version has it - BE and WERE."


So he tells us that it should really be translated as “is calling the things that BE not as BEING.”  


Now, I have no real problem with the way he thinks the verse should be translated. But it is just fine the way it stands in the King James Bible and many others as we shall soon see.


Mr. Middleton is not following the logic of the context of this verse, and worst of all, he is ignorant of his own English language and how the verb “were” is being used here.  


http://www.differencebetween.net/language/difference-between-were-and-was/

 

Right there on this English Grammar site under example #6 is this explanation:


6. “Were” can be used as the past subjunctive FOR THE PRESENT TENSE EQUIVALENT OF ‘TO BE’.


Examples of “were” being used “for the present tense equivalent of ‘to be’.


I wish you were here.


I didn’t know you were such a good cook.  (And you ARE.)

 

Those shoes make him feel as though he were walking on clouds.

 

She acts as though she were the queen of England.


I wouldn’t do that if I were you.


He wishes he were young again.


If you were to win the lottery, what would you do with the money?


Just notice the context in Romans 4:17. (As it is written, I HAVE MADE THEE a father of many nations,) before him whom he believed, even God, who CALLETH THOSE THINGS WHICH BE NOT AS THOUGH THEY WERE.”


The apostle Paul is quoting from Genesis 17:5 where God says to Abraham - “Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for a father of many nations HAVE I MADE THEE.”


At this time, Abraham had only one son, Ishmael. He hadn’t yet had the promised seed Isaac. And he certainly was not the father of many nations.  But God said he WAS.  That is the context of the verse in Romans 4:17.



“he calleth the things that be not AS THOUGH THEY WERE.”


Not only does the King James Bible read this way - using what looks like a “past tense verb” to mean a present reality -  but so do the following Bible translations -


Tyndale 1534, The Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549, The Bishops’ bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587 - “and calleth those thinges which be not, as though they were.”, The Beza N.T. 1599, The Bill Bible 1671, Mace New Testament 1729,  Whiston’s New Testament 1745, Worsley Version 1770, John Wesley Version 1790, The Revised Translation 1815 -"as though they WERE.", Webster’s Translation 1833, The Pickering N.T. 1840, The Commonly Received Version 1851, the Boothroyd Bible 1853, the Calvin Version 1856, The Revised N.T. 1862 - "and calleth those things that BE not as though they WERE.", the American Bible Union N.T. 1865, Noyes Translation 1869, Revised Version 1885 - “calleth the things that are not, as though they were.”, The Alford N.T. 1870, The Revised English Bible 1877, the Sharpe Bible 1883, The Revised Version 1885, the Bible in Basic English 1961, The New English Bible 1970 - “and summons things that are not yet in existence as if they already WERE.”,  The Word of Yah 1993, J.P. Green’s literal 1985 edition -“and calling the things that are not as if they were.”, Hebrew Names Version 2014.

 

The ASV 1901 - “and calleth the things that are not, as though they WERE”, Etheridge Translation of the Syriac 1849, Lamsa’s translation of the Syriac Peshitta 1933, Worrell N.T. 1904, The Third Millennium Bible 1998, The World English Bible 2000, God’s First Truth 1999, The Tomson N.T. 2002, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Concordant Version 2006 - “and calling what is not AS IF IT WERE.” Context Group Version 2007, Bond Slave Version 2009, English Majority Text 2009 (Paul Esposito) - “calls those things which are not as though they WERE”, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, The New European Version 2010 - "things that ARE not as though they WERE.", and the 2012 World English Bible - “calls the things that are not, as though they WERE.”, The Modern Literal N.T. 2014 - "as though they WERE."



Others that read in a similar fashion are the NKJV  1982 - “calls those things which do not exist AS THOUGH THEY DID.”, The NIV 2011 - “calls into being things that WERE NOT.”,  Modern English Version 2014 - “calls those things that do not exist as though they did.”, the Amplified bible 1987 - “speaks of the nonexistent things that [He has foretold and promised] as if they [already] existed.”, Living Oracles 1835 - “things which exist not, as though they EXISTED.”, Twentieth Century N.T. 1904, Weymouth N.T. 1912,  The Last Days Bible 1999, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, The Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010.


Mr. Middleton has NO clue what he is talking about and he doesn’t even know his own English language very well.


Good advice when you run into a self appointed, ran but not sent, Bible correcting ignoramus like David Middleton - 


“Go from the presence of a foolish man, when thou perceivest not in him the lips of knowledge.”  Proverbs 14:7 

 

Romans 4:19 "And being not weak in faith, he considered not his own body NOW (ηδη - eede) dead...". The little word "now" is found in the majority of all texts including Sinaiticus, A, C, D, and is in Wycliffe, Tyndale, Coverdale, Bishops, Geneva, KJB, NKJV, RV, ASV, NASB and the NRSV.

However Vaticanus omits the word and so do the NIV, RSV, ESV, NET and Holman. Westcott-Hort used to omit the word entirely, but now the latest UBS critical text puts it back in but within brackets. Notice that the RSV omitted it, then the NRSV put it back in, and then the ESV once again has taken it out. But wait! The new 2014 ISV is out and they have put it back in again!

Romans 5:2 "By whom we have access BY FAITH into this grace wherein we stand, and rejoice in hope of the glory of God."

The words "by faith" are found in the Majority of all texts including Sinaiticus, A and C, and the words are still found in the NASB, NIV, NET and ESV.

However Vaticanus omits the words "by faith" and so do the RSV, NRSV and the New English Bible 1970. Again, notice that the previous RSV, NRSV's omitted the words, but now the latest revision of the revision of the revision (ESV) has once again put them back in their text.

Romans 6:11 "Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God through Jesus Christ OUR LORD."

The final words "our Lord" are in the majority of all texts including Sinaiticus and C, as well as some Old Latin copies, the Syriac Peshitta, Palestinian, Coptic Boharic, Georgian, Armenian, Ethiopic and Slavonic ancient versions.

The words are also in Wycliffe, Tyndale, Coverdale, Bishops, Geneva, KJB, NKJV, Hebrew Names Version, Spanish Reina Valera, and many others.

But Vaticanus omits the words "our Lord" and so do the RV, ASV, NASB, NIV, RSV, ESV, NET and Holman versions. Even though the reading is found in Sinaiticus, the modern versionists unite in following the Vatican manuscript here.

 

Romans 8:1 "There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, WHO WALK NOT AFTER THE FLESH, BUT AFTER THE SPIRIT."

 

There is tremendous confusion among the Greek texts for the reading of this verse. All the capitalized words are found in the Majority of all remaining Greek manuscripts including Sinaiticus correction, D correction #2, Dabs, K, L, P, 33, some Old Latin copies like ar, e and o, the Greek Lectionaries, the Syriac Harclean, Georgian and Slavonic ancient versions. 

Sinaiticus and Vaticanus disagree with each other in both this verse and in Romans 8:2, yet it is primarily from the notoriously corrupt Vatican manuscript that most modern Vatican Versions like the more modern Catholic versions, the Jehovah Witness New World Translation and the ESV, NIV, NASB, NET, ISV and Holman are translated.

The Vaticanus mss. as well as C omit the words "who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit." and so too the modern Catholic St. Joseph NAB 1970, the New Jerusalem bible 1985 and these aforementioned UBS based "Evangelical-Vatican" versions like the ESV, NIV, NASB, Jehovah Witness NWT etc. 

Other manuscripts like A and D correction #1 read like the previous Wycliffe bible 1395, the Catholic Douay - Rheims of 1582 and the Douay of 1950 - "There is now therefore no condemnation to them that are in Christ Jesus, WHO WALK NOT ACCORDING TO THE FLESH." and omit the words "but after the Spirit."

 

"WHO WALK NOT AFTER THE FLESH, BUT AFTER THE SPIRIT."

 

Agreeing with the full reading found in the Majority of Greek manuscripts and the King James Bible are Tyndale 1525, Coverdale 1535, Cranmer's (Great) Bible 1539, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, The Beza N.T. 1599, The Bill Bible 1671, John Wesley's N.T. 1755, the Worsley Version 1770, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, The Revised Translation 1815, Webster Bible 1833, the Longman Version 1841, the Morgan N.T. 1848, The Commonly Received Version 1851, the Julia Smith Translation 1855, the Calvin Bible 1856, The Revised N.T. 1862, The Smith Bible 1876, The Revised English Bible 1877, The Dillard N.T. 1885, Young's 1898, the NKJV 1982, KJV 21st Century 1994, Green's MKJV 2000,  Amplified Bible 1987 (Lockman Foundation), The Revised Webster Bible 1995, The Third Millennium Bible 1998, the Interlinear Greek N.T. 1999 (Larry Pierce), God's First Truth 1999, The Last Days Bible 1999, The Tomson N.T. 2002, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Apostolic Polyglot Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005 (Vince Garcia), The Conservative Version Interlinear 2005, The Pickering N.T. 2005, The Revised Geneva Bible 2005, the Concordant Version 2006, Bond Slave Version 2009, English Majority Text Version 2009 (Paul Esposito), Concordant Literal Version 2009, Robinson-Pierpoint Byzantine Greek N.T., the Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010 (Yerusha Shen), the English Jubilee Bible 2010, the Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011, Conservative Bible 2011, The Work of God's Children Bible 2011, the Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Lanny Mebust), The Hebraic Roots Bible 2012, The World English Bible 2012 - "There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who don’t walk according to the flesh, but according to the Spirit." and The Holy Bible, The Modern Literal New Testament 2014, and the Modern English Version 2014. 

and the Modern Greek Bible - "Δεν ειναι τωρα λοιπον ουδεμια κατακρισις εις τους εν Χριστω, Ιησου, τους μη περιπατουντας κατα την σαρκα, αλλα κατα το πνευμα."

And in the Modern Hebrew Bible - על כן אין אשמה באלה אשר הם במשיח ישוע המתהלכים בלא כבשר כי אם לפי הרוח׃

 

Foreign Language Bibles that also read like the King James Bible are Luther's German Bible of 1545, and the Schlachter Bible of 2000 - "So gibt es jetzt keine Verdammnis mehr für die, welche in Christus Jesus sind, die nicht gemäß dem Fleisch wandeln, sondern gemäß dem Geist.", the  Italian Diodati of 1649, the New Diodati of 1991 and the Italian Riveduta of 2006 - "Ora dunque non vi è alcuna condanna per coloro che sono in Cristo Gesú, i quali non camminano secondo la carne ma secondo lo Spirito", the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, the  Reina Valera 1602, 1909, 1960, 1995 and 2011, La Biblia de las Américas 1997 (Lockman Foundation, the same people who give us the NASB),  the Portuguese A Biblia Sagrada and the Almeida Corrigida E Fiel - "Portanto, agora nenhuma condenaçäo há para os que estäo em Cristo Jesus, que näo andam segundo a carne, mas segundo o Espírito.", the French Martin 1744, French Ostervald 1996 and Louis Segond 21 of 2007 - "qui marchent, non selon la chair, mais selon l'esprit.", the Arabic Smith & Van Dyke, the Polish Biblia Gdanska, the Finnish Bible 1776, the Dutch Staten Vertaling, Czeck BKR, the Latvian Bible, Lithuanian Bible, Albanian, Basque N.T., the Hungarian Karoli, Afrikaans bible 1953, the Romanian Cornilescu, the Russian Synodal Version, and the Victor Zhuromsky N.T.  

 

(Note: Some see a theological problem with the words "no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit." but there is no problem at all when properly understood in the context of Romans 6 through 8. Our old man was crucified with Christ; He fulfilled the righteousness of the law in us and for us and in our stead, and  "Ye are no longer in the flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you." Romans 8:9.  All born again Christians now walk positionally in newness of life and in the Spirit because positionally we are IN Christ. This salvation is so sure that those whom He justified He also glorified! Romans 8:30.)

However Sinaiticus original, and Vaticanus omit all these words and so do versions like the ASV, NASB, NIV, RSV, ESV, NET and Holman Standard.

Manuscripts A and D correction #1 have part of the words and omit the others. These include "who walk not after the flesh", but omit "but after the Spirit". The Catholic Douay-Rheims of 1582 and the 1950 Douay versions read this way, but the more recent Catholic versions like the St. Joseph NAB and the Jerusalem Bible now read like the NASB, NIV, and ESV and omit all the words  - "who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit." from the last part of the verse.

Looking more closely at the textual apparatus, it appears that D original omitted the whole phrase.  Then D correction number 1 added "who walk not according to the flesh" and then D 2nd correction added the entire phrase "who walk not after the flesh but after the Spirit" and this is how the Majority of Greek texts read.

So, in other words, it is mainly because of the Vatican manuscript that modern versions like the NASB, NIV, RSV, NET, Holman Standard and the more modern Catholic versions unite in omitting the whole last phrase "who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit."

 Early Church Writers - 

170-236 A.D. Early Church Fathers - Ante-Nicene Fathers - Volume 5 - Hippolytus - The Extant Works and Fragments of Hippolytus. - Part II. Dogmatical and Historical. - Against the Heresy of One Noetus.

And in like manner also the blessed Paul says, “For what the law could not do, in that it was weak, God, sending His own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, condemned sin in the flesh, that the righteousness of the law might be shown in us, WHO WALK NOT AFTER THE FLESH, BUT AFTER THE SPIRIT.”


THE EARLY CHURCH FATHERS 347-420 A.D.  St. Jerome: Letters and Select Works - Treatises. - Against Jovinianus. - Book I - And ROM 8:1-2. “THERE IS THEREFORE NOW NO CONDEMNATION TO THEM THAT ARE IN CHRIST JESUS, WHO WALK NOT AFTER THE FLESH. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and death.” And more clearly in what follows he teaches that Christians do not WALK ACCORDING TO THE FLESH BUT ACCORDING TO THE SPIRIT.”


347-407 A.D. Early Church Fathers - St. Chrysostom: - The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom. - Homily XVI - Matthew 5:17. “And as to our having received more abundant help, hear thou Paul, when he saith, “THERE IS THEREFORE NO CONDEMNATION NOW TO THEM WHICH ARE IN CHRIST JESUS, WHO WALK NOT AFTER THE FLESH, BUT AFTER THE SPIRIT:"


347-407 A.D. Chrysostom: Homilies on the Acts of the Apostles and the Epistle to the Romans - The Homilies of St. John Chrysostom on Paul's Epistle to the Romans - Homily XIII on Rom. 7:14. For “THERE IS,” he says, “NOW NO CONDEMNATION TO THEM WHICH ARE IN CHRIST JESUS, WHO WALK NOT AFTER THE FLESH.” Yet he did not say it before he had first recalled to mind our former condition again in the words, “So then with the mind I myself serve the law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin.”



354-430 A.D. Early Church Fathers - Nicene & Post-Nicene Fathers - First Series - Volume 4 - St. Augustin: Anti-Manichaean, Anti-Donatist Writings - Writings in Connection with the Manichæan Controversy. - Reply to Faustus the Manichæan. - Book XIX - WHO WALK NOT AFTER THE FLESH, BUT AFTER THE SPIRIT."

 

 

Romans 8:2 "For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus hath made ME free from the law of sin and death."

ESV - "For the law of the Spirit of life has set YOU free in Christ Jesus from the law of sin and death."

 

Here again is where the multitude of conflicting modern versions strut their stuff. The reading of "made ME free" is found in the Majority of all texts including A, C, D, the Old Latin copies of d, dem, e, mon, x and z. So too the Syriac Harclean, Coptic Sahidic, Gothic, Armenian, Geogian and Slavonic ancient versions.

Agreeing with the KJB reading of "made ME free" are Wycliffe 1395, Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, Bishops' bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Douay-Rheims 1582, Darby 1890, RV, 1885, ASV 1901, Youngs 1898, Douay 1950, Weymouth N.T., New Life Version 1969, Living Bible 1971, NKJV 1982, Amplified Bible 1987, The Word of Yah 1993, New International Reader's Version 1998, Complete Jewish Bible 1998, God's First Truth 1999, Green's Literal 2005, Bond Slave Version 2009, Faithful N.T. 2009, English Majority Text Version 2009, Jubilee Bible 2010, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible 2011, Conservative Bible 2011, World English Bible 2012 and the Holy Bible Modern English Version 2014 - "has made ME free"

So too does the Modern Greek Bible - “Διοτι ο νομος του Πνευματος της ζωης εν Χριστω Ιησου με ηλευθερωσεν απο του νομου της αμαρτιας και του θανατου.” = “has made ME free from the law of sin and death”  


 

And the Modern Hebrew Bible - כי תורת רוח החיים במשיח ישוע שחררה אתי מתורת החטא והמות׃ = “has made ME free”


Not even the early revisions went along with the Sinaitic/Vaticanus reading, nor do all the modern ones either. The Revised Version 1885, the American Standard Version 1901, and the RSV of 1946-1971 editions all kept the reading of "made ME free", and so too did the NIVs 1973, 1978 and 1984 editions and the brand new ISV 2014 (International Standard Version.)

But Sinaiticus and Vaticanus have the reading of "made YOU free", and so read the NASB, NRSV, ESV, NET, Holman Standard and the Jehovah Witness New World Translation.

The new critical text versions are not even in agreement among themselves. But wait! There's more. The NIV editions from 1974, 1978 and 1984 all read: "set ME free from the law of sin", but now in the 2011 New NIV they have changed their underlying Greek text (as they have done in several places from the 1984 edition) and it now reads: "has set YOU free".

 

The Catholic Connection

Among the Catholic Versions we see the same thing. The earlier Douay-Rheims and the Douay 1950 read "set ME free".  Then the St. Joseph NAB 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible of 1985 went with "set YOU free", but then again in 2009 the Catholic Public Domain version has once again gone back to "set ME free".

This is the true nature of what our scholarly bible agnostics like to call the "science" of textual criticism, and they hope you will fall for it so that you can end up just as confused as they are.



Romans 8:28 KJB - ”And we know that ALL THINGS WORK TOGETHER FOR GOOD, to them that love GOD, to them who are the called according to his purpose."


NIV - “And we know that IN ALL THINGS GOD WORKS for the good of those who love HIM who have been called according to his purpose.”


Not even the familiar and well know verses read the same in today’s Bible Babble Buffet versions, nor do they follow the same underlying text.  In the case of the NIV, it doesn’t even follow it’s own underlying UBS/Nestle-Aland critical text, and what it does have, it paraphrases.


The Traditional Greek text reads as does the King James Bible.  Romans 8:28 - οιδαμεν δε οτι τοις αγαπωσιν τον θεον παντα συνεργει εις αγαθον τοις κατα προθεσιν κλητοις ουσιν


This is the reading of the Majority of all manuscripts including Sinaiticus, C, D, the Old Latin, the Vulgate, the Syriac Peshitta, Harclean, Coptic Boharic, Armenian, Georgian and Slavonic ancient versions. It is also so quoted by  Clement, Origen, Eusebius, Ambrosiaster, Cyril, Diodore, Ambrose, Didymus, Chrysostom, Pelagius, Jerome, Augustine, Theodoret and John-Damascus.


The UBS/Nestle-Aland 27th and 28th editions also read the same. 


However Westcott and Hort put an additional “GOD” in the text, but in brackets and it looked like this - οιδαμεν δε οτι τοις αγαπωσιν τον θεον παντα συνεργει [ο θεος] εις αγαθον τοις κατα προθεσιν κλητοις ουσιν


To follow the word order and translate it literally would be - “…to those that love GOD all things work GOD for good…” But the word GOD would now appear two times.  The extra word GOD is found in P46, Vaticanus and A.   


The Egyptian manuscripts, upon which most modern versions are based, are a very mixed bag of conflicting and contradictory readings, even among themselves. This is just one more example of where the so called "oldest and best manuscripts" differ from each other by literally hundreds of words.

 

For many more examples see "The Oldest and Best Manuscripts?" - 

http://brandplucked.webs.com/oldestandbestmss.htm



The NASB is virtually the only modern version to do this. The NASB 1995 reads; "And we know that GOD causes all things to work together for good to those who love GOD, to those who are called according to His purpose."  


Also agreeing with the NASB is the Jehovah Witness New World Translation. 



This additional word "GOD causes all things to work" was originally put in brackets by Westcott and Hort. But not even the Revised Version 1885 or the ASV of 1901 followed the Westcott-Hort text here, but read like the KJB. 


Then the extra [God] was omitted in the Nestle 4th edition 1934, but later again added to the Nestle text in brackets in the Nestle 21st edition 1975, but once again removed shortly afterward.  The latest Nestle-Aland, UBS texts omits this extra word taken from Vaticanus and still found in the NASB's 1963 to 1995 editions and the Jehovah Witness New World Translation. 


But the NIV takes this verse and ADDS the word GOD to the text where it doesn’t even appear in the UBS/Nestle-Aland text, and where the word GOD DOES appear, they put “him” instead. 


NIV - “And we know that IN ALL THINGS GOD WORKS for the good of those who love HIM who have been called according to his purpose.” 


Other versions that read like the NIV are the liberal RSV, and the Roman Catholic St. Joseph NAB 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985. 


St. Joseph New American bible says: "We know that GOD makes all things work together for the good of those who love HIM" and the NIV says: "And we know that GOD works for the good of those who love HIM". 



However the ESV actually follows the UBS/Nestle-Aland text and reads like the King James Bible.  The ESV says: “And we know that for those who love God ALL THINGS WORK TOGETHER FOR GOOD, for those who are called according to his purpose.” 



Agreeing with the Traditional King James Bible reading - “And we know that ALL THINGS WORK TOGETHER FOR GOOD to them that love God” are Wycliffe 1395, Tyndale 1534, Coverdale, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549, Bishops’ bible 1568, Geneva 1587, the Revised Version 1885, American Standard version 1901, Darby 1890, Youngs 1898, NRSV 1989, NKJV 1982, Holman Standard, the ESV and even Dan Wallace’s NET version 2006.


The Catholic Connection



The older Catholic Douay-Rheims 1582 and the Douay 1950 both read like the Majority of texts and the KJB, but now the St. Joseph NAB 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985 read just like the NIV. 


St. Joseph NAB says: "We know that GOD makes all things work together for the good of those who love HIM" and the NIV says: "And we know that GOD works for the good of those who love HIM". 


And the earlier RSV read like the NIV, but now the NRSV and ESV have gone back to the traditional reading found in the King James Bible. "And we know that for those who love God all things work together for good, for those who are called according to his purpose."


Do you see how the “science of textual criticism” game works, now? 


Dealing with the Bible Critics 



Romans 8:19-21 Is the word “creature” “a bad translation”?


Randy S., who himself does NOT believe that ANY Bible in any language is now or ever was the complete and inerrant words of God,  says:  "Do you not understand that Paul is speaking in Romans 8 about the restoration of the entire created cosmos? "Creature" was simply a bad translation of the word κτσις. Even the translators of the NKJV recognized the error and changed it."


Randy, all you are showing us here is that you are your own authority, and you are wrong about κτσις being “a bad translation".


Romans 8 IS talking about the whole of creation itself, including the animal kingdom, being delivered from corruption. It is not only talking about the physical creation of rocks, trees, the land and the oceans, but it includes the animal kingdom as well. And, sir, we are ALL creatures.  We were created by our Creator.


This is similar to the covenant God made with, not only the physical earth, but with the animal kingdom as well in the days of Noah.  “And God spake unto Noah, and to his sons with him, saying, And I, behold, establish my covenant with you, and with your seed after you: AND WITH EVERY LIVING CREATURE that is with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of every beast of the earth with you….This is the token of the covenant which I make between me and you AND EVERY LIVING CREATURE that is with you…I do set my bow in the cloud…And I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you AND EVERY LIVING CREATURE of all flesh”  Genesis 9:9-15.


Romans 8:19-21 - 


19 For the earnest expectation of the CREATURE waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.


20 For the CREATURE was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope,


21 Because the CREATURE itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.


Here we have “the creature” listed along with “the children of God” = animals as well as people are included in this covenant.  


Not only does the KJB correctly read CREATURE in these verses, but so too do the following Bible translations -  Wycliffe 1395, Tyndale 1525 - “the creatures”, Coverdale 1535, The Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549 - “the creatures”, the Bishops’ Bible 1568, Douay-Rheims 1582, the Geneva Bible 1587 - “the creature”, The Beza New Testament 1599 - “the creature”, Whiston’s N.T. 1745, Webster Bible 1833,  Living Oracles N.T. 1835, The Pickering N.T. 1840, The Hewett N.T. 1850, The Commonly Received Version 1851, The Calvin Version 1856, Darby 1890, The Clarke N.T. 1913, the KJV 21st Century Version 1994, The Third Millennium Bible 1998 - “the creature”, God’s First Truth 1999 - “the creatures”, The Tomson New Testament 2002 - “the creature”, the Jubilee Bible 2010 - “the creatures”, The Work of God’s Children Bible 2011 - “the creature”, the New Matthew Bible 2016 - “the creatures”.


Bible Commentators


Matthew Henry on Romans 8:19 - “By the creature here we understand, not as some do the Gentile world, and their expectation of Christ and the gospel, which is an exposition very foreign and forced, but the whole frame of nature, especially that of this lower world—the whole creation, the compages of inanimate and sensible creatures, which, because of their harmony and mutual dependence, and because they all constitute and make up one world, are spoken of in the singular number as the creature.


John Gill - “For the earnest expectation of the creature,.... Some by the creature understand the universe, all created beings animate and inanimate, which having suffered much by the sin of man, are introduced by a rhetorical figure, as waiting for deliverance and a restoration to their paradisiacal estate.”


Matthew Poole’s English Annotations on the Holy Bible - The creature: this word is four times used in this and the three following verses, only in Romans 8:22 it is rendered creation; that is the subject of which all that followeth is predicated. One main question therefore is this: Of what creature the apostle here speaks? Divers answers are or may be given…BY THE CREATURE IS MEANT THE WHOLE WORLD WITH ALL THE CREATURES THEREIN, or the whole frame and body of the creation.”


Haldane’s Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans - “Creature. — The word in the original, which is translated in the 19th, 20th, and 21st verses, CREATURE, and in the 22nd, creation, can have no reference to the fallen angels, for they do not desire the manifestation of the children of God; this they dread, and, looking forward to it, tremble.


Neither can it refer to the elect angels, …It does not apply to men, all of whom are either the children of God or of the wicked one. It cannot refer to the children of God, for they are here expressly distinguished from the creation of which the Apostle speaks; nor can it apply to wicked men, for they have no wish for the manifestation of the sons of God whom they hate… IT REMAINS, THEN, THAT THE CREATURES DESTITUTE OF INTELLIGENCE,  animate and inanimate, the heavens and the earth, the elements, the plants  AND ANIMALS, ARE HERE REFERRED TO. 


The Apostle means to say that the creation, which, on account of sin, has, by the sentence of God, been subjected to vanity, shall be rescued from the present degradation under which it groans, and that, according to the hope held out to it, is longing to participate with the sons of God in that freedom from vanity into which it shall at length be introduced, partaking with them in their future and glorious deliverance from all evil. This indeed cannot mean that the plants and animals, as they at present exist, shall be restored; but that the condition of those things which shall belong to the new heavens and the new earth, prepared for the sons of God, shall be delivered from the curse, and restored to a perfect state, as when all things that God had created were pronounced by Him very good, and when, as at the beginning, before sin entered, THEY SHALL BE FULLY  ADAPTED TO THE USE OF MAN. 


As men earnestly desire what is good, and, on the contrary, groan and sigh in their sufferings, the like emotions of joy and sorrow are here ascribed to the inanimate and unintelligent creation. In this way the prophets introduce the earth as groaning, AND THE ANIMALS AS CRYING TO GOD, in sympathy with the condition of man.”


The King James Bible is ALWAYS right, and the Bible critics, who like to be their own authority, just can’t stand it.



 

Romans 8:34 "Who is he that condemneth? It is CHRIST that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God..." So read the Majority of all texts, as well as Tyndale, Coverdale, Bishops, Geneva, NKJV and even Dan Wallace's NET version. However Sinaiticus adds an extra word "Jesus" to the text, though not found in Vaticanus.

Versions like the ASV, NASB, NIV, ESV, RSV and Holman all add the word JESUS based on Sinaiticus. and end up saying  "CHRIST JESUS who died".  However in this same verse Sinaiticus also adds additional words to the text, that are not found in the Majority nor in Vaticanus. The Sinaiticus mss. goes on to say: "that is risen again FROM THE DEAD". (ek nekroon).

So the continuing confusion is seen in that the RV, ASV and RSV all added both the extra word "Jesus" AND the words "that is risen again FROM THE DEAD", based on the Sinaiticus reading. But wait! Now the revisions of their predecessors have once again "scientifically" decided to omit these extra words from Sinaiticus, (but keep the extra word "Jesus") and so versions like the NASB, NIV, NRSV and ESV now read " it is Christ JESUS ...who was raised" (thus omitting "from the dead") But Dan Wallace's NET version didn't add the extra word "Jesus" like the others did.  If you are beginning the think the "science" of textual criticism is a bit complicated, you're right. It is.

The new versions now go back and forth between Sinaiticus and Vaticanus readings in the very same verse. God only knows what will come down the pike next. Daniel Wallace's NET version and the Contemporary English Version 1995 have already done away with the extra word "Jesus". This is the true nature of "the art and science" of textual criticism.

Romans 8:35 "Who shall separate us from the love OF CHRIST?". Again, so read the majority of all texts, and this time even versions like the NASB, NIV, ESV, RSV and Holman say "the love of CHRIST". BUT, the Sinaiticus manuscript says "the love of GOD", while the Vaticanus mss. says "the love of GOD IN CHRIST JESUS".

I wonder what would James White have to say about these "expansions of piety". In any event, we see that none of the versions follow the conflicting "oldest and best manuscripts" in this particular verse, though they HAVE omitted THOUSANDS of other words from the New Testament, based on these same two false witnesses, and then have the nerve to call this "science"!!

Romans 10:3 "For they being ignorant of God's righteousness, and going about to establish their own RIGHTEOUSNESS, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of God."

The word "righteousness" is found three times in this verse in the majority of all texts, including Sinaiticus and in all previous English Bibles like Wycliffe, Tyndale, Coverdale, Bishops', Geneva. It is also found in the NKJV, and more recently in the Holman Standard, the 2011 Common English Bible (a critical text version) and even Wallace's NET version.

However Vaticanus omits the middle word "righteousness" and the NASB, RSV, NIV, ESV and ISV omit the word saying "seeking to establish their own". Westcott and Hort originally included the word, then later Nestle's took it out, but then the latest Nestle-Aland Critical text has once again put the word back in their texts.  ALL the Catholic versions follow the Vatican manuscript here and omit one of the three words translated as "righteousness" or "justice".

Romans 10:17 KJB “So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of GOD.”

 

ESV (NIV, NASB) - “So faith comes from hearing, and hearing through the word of CHRIST.”

 

The main textual difference here between the Traditional Reformation text and the Vatican Critical text versions is the last word in the verse. Does it read “the word of GOD” or “the word of CHRIST.”?

 

There is a great deal of confusion found among the so called “oldest and best” manuscripts here.

 

The reading found in the King James Bible and the Reformation texts is “by the word of GOD” (διὰ ῥήματος θεοῦ). This is the reading found in the Majority of all Greek manuscripts including A, Sinaitic correction, D correction, K, L, P, Psi, as well as the Syriac Peshitta, Harkelian, Ethiopic, Georgian and Slavonic ancient versions.  

 

It is also so quoted by such early church writers as Clement, Basil, Gaudentius, Chrysostom, Jerome, Theodore, Theodoret, John-Damascus and Sedullus.

 

The reading of “CHRIST” (Χριστοῦ) is that of Vaticanus and C, some Old Latin copies and the Gothic and Armenian. 

 

Reading “by hearing the word of CHRIST” are the critical text/UBS/Vatican versions like the ASV, RSV, ESV, NASB, NIV, NET, Holman, ALL Catholic Versions like the Douay-Rheims 1582, St. Joseph NAB 1970, the New Jerusalem bible 1985 and the Jehovah Witness New World Translation. 

 

A few manuscripts (G and a couple of Old Latin copies) omit both God or Christ and merely say “through the word”. In fact,  Whiston’s N.T. of 1745 read this way, saying: “So then, faith is by hearing, and hearing by the Word.” 

 

So, as is often the case, there is a wide variety of variant readings here.

 

Agreeing with the King James Bible and the Traditional Reformation text of “hearing by the word of GOD” are Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549, the Bishops’ Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, John Wesley’s N.T. 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, Living Oracles 1835, Murdock 1852 translation and Lamsa’s 1933 translations of the Syriac Peshitta, Julia Smith translation 1855, Sawyer N.T. 1858, Noyes Translation 1869, Darby 1890, Young’s literal 1898, NKJV 1982, The Word of Yah 1993, Third Millennium Bible 1998, the Emphatic Diaglott New Testament, the Complete Apostles Bible 2005, A Conservative Version 2005, American Bible Union N.T. 2008,  English Jubilee Version 2010 and the New Heart English Bible of 2010 = “hearing by the word of GOD.”, the Hebrew Transliteration Scriptures 2011 - “the word of Elohim.” and Conservative Bible 2011 (Andrew Schlafly) and the World English Bible of 2012. 


Foreign Language Bibles that also read “by hearing the word of GOD” are Luther’s German bible 1545 - “das Predigen aber durch das Wort Gottes.”, the 2000 German Schlachter bible, the Dutch Staten Vertaling Bible - “het Woord Gods”, the French Martin 1744, French Ostervald 1998 and French Louis Segond 2007 - “par la parole de Dieu.”, the Spanish Cipriano de Valera 1602 and the Reina Valera 1909 - 2011 - “y el oir por la palabra de DIOS”, the Italian Diodati 1649 and La Nuova Diodati 1991 - “e l’udito è per la parola di Dio.”, the Portuguese Almeida Corregida 1681 and Portuguese Biblia Sagrada - “e o ouvir pela palavra de Deus.", and the 2013 Polish Updated Gdansk Bible -“przez słowo Boże.” = “the word of GOD.”


Also reading “word of GOD” are the 2014 Romanian Fidela Bible - “iar auzirea prin cuvântul lui Dumnezeu.”, the Czech BKR - “ a slyšení skrze slovo Boží.”, the 1998 Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos Bible - “ay mula sa salita ng Diyos.”, the Hungarian Karoli Bible - “a hallás pedig Isten ígéje által.” = “the word of GOD.”, the Russian Synodal Version - “а слышание от слова Божия.” = “hearing by the word of GOD.”, Smith and VanDyke’s Arabic Bible - اذا الايمان بالخبر والخبر بكلمة الله., the Modern Greek Bible - “η δε ακοη δια του λογου του Θεου.” and the Modern Hebrew Bible - לכן האמונה באה מתוך השמועה והשמועה על ידי דבר אלהים =“and hearing by the word OF GOD.”

 

So, do you want to go with the Reformation Text or the Vatican Text?  Which one do you think God inspired?

 

 

Romans 11:6 KJB -  "And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. BUT IF IT BE OF WORKS, THEN IT IS NO MORE GRACE; OTHERWISE WORK IS NO MORE WORK."

 

ESV (NIV, NASB, NET, Catholic Versions, Jehovah Witness NWT) - "But if it is by grace, it is no longer on the basis of works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace."

 The words that are omitted are BUT IF IT BE OF WORKS, THEN IT IS NO MORE GRACE; OTHERWISE WORK IS NO MORE WORK." - ει δε εξ εργων ουκετι εστιν χαρις επει το εργον ουκετι εστιν εργον

The absurdity of calling Sinaiticus and Vaticanus the "best" manuscripts is fully revealed in this great verse. All the capitalized words are found in the majority of all Greek texts, and even in the Sinaiticus correction. When we examine the Vaticanus manuscript we find an amazing blunder right on the surface. Vaticanus turns things on its head saying: "But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no longer GRACE."!!!

Primarily on the basis of A, C and D (which also constantly disagree not only with the majority of texts, but also among themselves) versions like the NASB, NIV, RSV, ESV, ISV, NET, Jehovah Witness New World Translation and Holman have omitted all these words "BUT IF IT BE OF WORKS, THEN IT IS NO MORE GRACE; OTHERWISE WORK IS NO MORE WORK."

So too do ALL Catholic versions like the Douay-Rheims 1582, St. Joseph New American bible 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985.

 The reading found in the King James Bible and the Reformation Bibles in all languages is that of the Majority of all Greek texts, including Sinaiticus Correction, Vatican's (except for that last word blunder where it changes "works" to "grace"), Psi, the Syriac Peshitta, Harclean, Georgian and Slavonic ancient translations. It was so quoted by such early church writers as Chrysostom, Theodoret, Gennadius and Theophylact.

 

Bible translations that include the whole second half of this verse - "BUT IF IT BE OF WORKS, THEN IT IS NO MORE GRACE; OTHERWISE WORK IS NO MORE WORK." are Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Wesley's translation 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, Webster's 1833, Noyes Translation 1869, Youngs 1898, Worrell N.T. 1904, the NKJV 1982,  Lamsa's translation of the Syriac Peshitta, The Word of Yah 1993, Interlinear Greek N.T. 1997 (Larry Pierce), the Third Millenium Bible 1998, Lawrie Translation 1998, The Scriptures 1998, Hebrew Names Version, God's First Truth 1999, Tomson N.T. 2002, New Testament Byzantine Text 2005, Concordant Version 2006, Bond Slave Version 2009, English Majority Text Version 2009, Jubilee Bible 2010, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), Conservative Bible 2011, Far Above All Translation 2011, Hebrew Roots Bible 2012, Natural Israelite Bible 2012, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek 2012 (Mebust), World English Bible 2012 and The Holy Bible Modern English Version 2014 - "And if by grace, then it is no longer by works; otherwise grace would no longer be grace. But if it is by works, then is it no longer by grace; otherwise work would no longer be work."


The Modern Greek Bible - Εαν δε κατα χαριν, δεν ειναι πλεον εξ εργων· επειδη τοτε η χαρις δεν γινεται πλεον χαρις. Εαν δε εξ εργων, δεν ειναι πλεον χαρις· επειδη το εργον δεν ειναι πλεον εργον.


And the Modern Hebrew Bible - ואם היתה זאת על ידי החסד לא היתה מתוך המעשים כי לולי כן החסד איננו עוד חסד ואם היתה מתוך המעשים איננו עוד חסד כי לולי כן המעשים יחדל להיות מעשה׃

 

Foreign language Bible that include all these words and agree with the traditional Reformation text are the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano de Valera 1602, La Biblia de las Américas 1997, Reina Valera 1909 - 2011- "Y si por las obras, ya no es gracia; de otra manera la obra ya no es obra.", Italian Diodati  1649, La Nuova Diodati 1991 and Italian Riveduta 2006 - "ma se è per opere, non è piú grazia, altrimenti l'opera non sarebbe piú opera.", French Martin 1744,  French Ostervald 1996 and French Louis Second 2007 - "Et si c'est par les œuvres, ce n'est plus une grâce, autrement l'œuvre n'est plus une œuvre.", Luther's German bible 1545, German Schlachter 2000 - "wenn aber um der Werke willen, so ist es nicht mehr Gnade, sonst ist das Werk nicht mehr Werk.", the Hungarian Károli bible, the Polish Updated Gdansk Bible 2013, Afrikaans Bible 1953, the Smith & van Dyke Arabic Bible - فان كان بالنعمة فليس بعد بالاعمال. وإلا فليست النعمة بعد نعمة. وان كان بالاعمال فليس بعد نعمة. وإلا فالعمل لا يكون بعد عملا., the Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos bible 1998 - "Kung ito ay sa gawa, ito ay hindi na biyaya, kung hindi gayon, ang gawa ay hindi na gawa.", the Russian Synodal Version and the Romanian Fidela bible 2014.  

 

Once again, it comes down to the Reformation text versus the Roman Catholic counter Reformation text, now being promoted by the modern versions like the ESV, NIV, NASB, NET, Holman, all whose texts are under the direct supervision of the Vatican. And NOBODY seriously believes any of them are the complete and inerrant words of God.

 

Romans 13:9  KJB - "Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, Thou shalt not steal, THOU SHALT NOT BEAR FALSE WITNESS, Thou shalt not covet"

 

ESV (NIV, NASB, NET, modern Catholic versions, Jehovah Witness NWT) - "You shall not commit adultery, You shall not murder, You shall not steal, You shall not covet"

 

The words "Thou shalt not bear false witness" (ου ψευδομαρτυρησεις) are found in a multitude of manuscripts and the Old Latin ar, b, c, dem, gig, z, the Syriac Harclean, Palestinian, Coptic Boharic, Armenian and Ethiopic ancient versions.  They are also in Sinaiticus, one of the so called "oldest and best mss." 

 

They are included in all English Bibles from Wycliffe 1395, Tyndale 1534 - "Thou shalt not beare false witnes", Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587 - "Thou shalt not beare false witnes", Mace N.T. 1729, Wesley's translation 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Haweis N.T. 1795, Youngs 1898, New Life Version 1969, the NKJV 1982, The Word of Yah 1993, KJV 21st Century 1994, Interlinear Greek 1997 (Larry Pierce), the Third Millenium Bible 1998, Lawrie Translation 1998, God's First Truth 1999, The Evidence Bible 2003, Green's Literal 2005, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, Concordant Version 2006, Bond Slave Version 2009, Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), the Jubilee Bible 2010, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, Conservative Bible 2011, The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible 2011, the Hebraic Roots Bible 2012 and the Natural Israelite Bible 2012 - "You shall not bear false witness". 

The Modern Greek Bible - Μη μοιχευσης, μη φονευσης, μη κλεψης, μη ψευδομαρτυρησης, μη επιθυμησης  

And the Modern Hebrew Bible - כי מצות לא תנאף לא תרצח לא תגנב לא תענה עד שקר לא תחמד ועוד כאלה כלולות הנה במאמר הזה ואהבת לרעך כמוך׃ 

 

Among foreign language bible that contain the words "YOU SHALL NOT BEAR FALSE WITNESS" are the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569 to the Reina Valera 2011 - "no dirás falso testimonio", the Italian Diodati 1649, La Nuova Diodati 1991 and Italian Riveduta 2006 - "non dir falsa testimonianza", the French Martin 1744, Ostervald 1996 and the French Louis Second 2007 - "tu ne diras point de faux témoignage", Martin Luther's German bible 1545 and the Schlachter Bible 2000 - "du sollst nicht falsch Zeugnis geben", the Portuguese Almeida Corregida 2009 - "não darás falso testemunho", the Romanian Fidela Bible 2014 - " să nu aduci mărturie falsă"and the 1998 Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos bible - " huwag kang mag-bigay ng maling patotoo"

 

However Vaticanus, P46, A and D omit these words and so do the versions from the Revised Version, to the NASB, RSV, ESV, NIV, ISV, NET, Holman Standard, most modern Catholic versions and the Jehovah Witness New World Translation.

[Note: P 46 has lots of readings in it that are also found in the KJB, but the new Vatican Versions do not always follow P 46 either. For example, in Romans 6:12 "obey IT IN (αυτη εν) the lusts thereof" is in P46 but omitted by the critical text.  In Romans 9:32 "as it were by the works OF THE LAW" (νομου) is in P46 but omitted in the Vatican Versions. In Romans 10:3 "going about to establish their own RIGHTEOUSNESS (δικαιοσυνην)" is in P46 but omitted in Vatican's and A and in some Critical text editions. In Romans 14:21 P46 contains the words "OR IS OFFENDED OR IS MADE WEAK", yet many modern versions omit these words. (See the study below). In 15:15 "Nevertheless BRETHREN" (αδελφοι) is omitted in the critical text, but found in P46 and the majority, and in Romans 15:19 "by the power of the Spirit OF GOD" (θεου) is in P46 and Sinaiticus, while Vatianus omits the word and so does the 2010 Society of Biblical Literature Greek text. Yet Westcott and Hort followed A which says "HOLY SPIRIT" and they put it in brackets - πνευματος [αγιου] - and so read the RV, ASV and RSV, but later on SOME critical texts changed again and now have [God] in brackets, while others omit both "God" and "Holy" and follow Vaticanus which merely has "the Spirit".  

Such is the true nature of what they like to call the "Science" of textual criticism.  No new information; they just willy nilly change their minds.]

The Catholic Connection

Once again, the Catholic versions continue to change among themselves.  The previous Douay-Rheims of 1582 contained all these words, saying: "For Thou shalt not commit adultery: Thou shalt not kill: Thou shalt not steal, THOU SHALT NOT BEAR FALSE WITNESS: Thou shalt not covet:"

BUT then the 1950 Douay omitted them followed by the St. Joseph NAB 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985.  But now the 2009 Sacred Bible Catholic Public Domain Version has put them back in the text.


Romans 13:13 "rioting".  


This little study is not a textual study but one of translation where I ran into a guy who said the KJB got this wrong and it should be "gluttony" or "eating" instead of "rioting". 


Romans 13:13 KJB - “ Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in RIOTING  and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying.”


ως εν ημερα ευσχημονως περιπατησωμεν μη κωμοις και μεθαις μη κοιταις και ασελγειαις μη εριδι και ζηλω


Geneva bible 1599 - So that we walk honestly, as in the day: not in GLUTTONY, and drunkenness, neither in chambering and wantonness, nor in strife and envying.


There is a certain Bible corrector who considers himself to be quite the expert and he tells us that the KJB is wrong for translating the word κωμοις as “rioting” and he tells us that it should be “eating” or “gluttony”.


Does this man have ANY Bible that he can show us that he honestly believes IS the complete and inerrant words of God?  Of course not.  He is his own authority, and he thinks his schoolboy Greek is able to correct or change the KJB or any bible any time some “spirit of revelation” moves him to do so.


But don’t ask this man to show you a copy of what he really believes is the inerrant words of God.  He will NEVER do it.


So, let’s take a closer look at this Greek word κωμοις.


The word is # 2970 komos and it is found 3 times in the texts that underlie the KJB. It is translated as “rioting” here in Romans 13:13 and two times as “revellings” in Galatians 5:21 and in 1 Peter 4:3.


Liddell and Scott’s Greek-English Lexicon, 1887 page 402 tells us that the Greek word komos means: “a revel, carousal, merrymaking with music and dancing.”


It also means “the band of revellers.”


Likewise Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon 1889 on page 367 tells us that the Greek word komos means: “a revel, carousal, i.e. in the Greek writers properly a nocturnal and riotous procession of half-drunken and frolicsome fellows who after supper parade through the streets with torches and music in honor of Bacchus or some other deity, and sing and play before the houses of their friends.”


And The Greek-English Lexicon by Bauer, Arndt and Gingrich 1957 on page 462 says that the Greek word komos refers to “excessive feasting, carousing, revelry.”


The English word “rioting” itself can refer to this type of behavior. 


Merriam-Webster Dictionary 


a. profligate behavior : debauchery 

b.  unrestrained revelry

c.  noise, uproar, or disturbance made by revelers


Webster’s 1828 Dictionary - Rioting


RI'OTING, participle present tense Reveling; indulging in excessive feasting.

RI'OTING, noun A reveling.

 

Not only does the King James Bible correctly say “RIOTING” but so too do the following Bible translations -  the Bishops’ Bible 1568, Mace N.T. 1729, Whiston’s N.T. 1745, Worsley N.T. 1770, The Revised Translation 1815, The Webster Bible 1833, The Commonly Received Version 1851, The Revised New Testament 1862, The Sharpe Bible 1883, Darby 1890, The Clarke N.T. 1913, The KJV 21st Century 1994, The Third Millennium Bible 1998, the Jubilee Bible 2010, and The Conservative Bible 2010.


Other Translations


“not in REVELLING” - ASV 1901, RSV 1971, NRSV 1989, Young’s 1898.


“not in REVELRY” - NKJV 1982


“not in CAROUSING” - NASB 1995, NET 2006,  Lexham English bible 2012, Modern English bible 2014, Holman Standard 2017, 


“not PARTYING” - Complete Jewish bible 1998,  Tomson N.T. 2002


“not in ORGIES” - ESV 2016


“WILD PARTIES” - God’s Word Translation 1995, ISV 2014. 


 


Romans 14:10-12 - "the judgment seat of CHRIST" = Jesus Christ is GOD! 

 

In the King James Bible and in the Traditional Greek texts of the Reformation Bibles we read: "But why dost thou judge thy brother? or why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for we shall all stand before the judgment seat of CHRIST, For it is written, As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to GOD. So then every one of us shall give account of himself to GOD." (Caps are mine) 

 

These verses clearly teach that the Lord Jesus Christ is God Himself. We will stand before the judgement seat of Christ = shall give account of himself to God. We also read of the judgment seat of Christ in 2 Corinthians 5:10, and John 5:22-23 tell us "For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the Son: That all men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father." 

 

Here in Romans 14:10-12 we have a clear testimony to the deity of Christ, who is both the Son of man and God.

 

The reading of "the judgment seat of CHRIST" is that of the Majority of all remaining Greek texts, including Sinaiticus correction, C correction, L, P, PSI, the Greek Lectionaries, the Old Latin dem, gue, r1, the Syriac Peshitta, Harkelian, the Gothic, Armenian and Ethiopic ancient versions and is so quoted by many early church witnesses as Marcion, Polycarp, Tertullian, Origen, Ambrosister, Didymus, Chrysostom, Theodore, Cyril, Theodoret, Gennadius and Antiochus.

 

However many modern critical text Vatican Versions like the ESV, NIV, NASB, ISV, NET, Holman, RSV, Common English Bible and most modern Catholic bible versions have a different reading here. They do not say judgment seat of CHRIST and then equate Christ with God, but they say "we will all stand before the judgment seat of GOD...so then each of us will give an account of himself to God."  ESV 2001. 

 

Gone is any parallelism showing that Christ Himself IS God. This different reading comes from the usual suspects, namely the Vatican manuscript. Sinaiticus original also read "God" but another scribe corrected it to read Christ and the same with codex C. However Vaticanus almost alone also omits the words "of God" in verse 12 - "give account of himself TO GOD." The words "to God" ARE found in Sinaiticus, and the textual 'scholars' decided here not to follow the Vatican mss. and so they included the word God in verse 12. The "science" of textual criticism is a marvel to behold, isn't it?

 

The Catholic Connection

 

What is also of interest are the various Catholic bible versions which, like today's ever changing Evangelical/Vatican versions, continue to change from one bible to the next.  The older Catholic Douay-Rheims bible of 1582 read like the KJB and followed the traditional Greek texts.  Is says: "For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of CHRIST. [11] For it is written: As I live, saith the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall confess to God. [12] Therefore every one of us shall render account to God for himself." 

 

BUT then in the 1950 Douay, again in the 1968 Jerusalem bible, the 1970 St. Joseph New American bible and again in the 1985 New Jerusalem bible they all read like the RSV, ESV, NIV, NASB, ISV, NET and say "we must all stand before the judgment seat of GOD" (not Christ). 

 

Oh, but wait!  Now the latest Catholic bible version to come down the pike is the 2009 The Sacred Bible Catholic Public Domain Version. It can be seen here -

 

 http://www.sacredbible.org/catholic/NT-06_Romans.htm#14

 

It has now gone back to using the Traditional Greek text and reads: {14:10} "So then, why do you judge your brother? Or why do you despise your brother? For we shall all stand before the judgment seat of CHRIST. {14:11} For it is written: “As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bend to me, and every tongue shall confess to God.” {14:12} And so, each one of us shall offer an explanation of himself to God." 

 

Agreeing with the reading whereby we can witness to the full deity of the Lord Jesus Christ as being the very GOD before whom we will stand in judgment are the following Bible translations: Wycliffe 1395 - "for alle we schulen stonde bifore the trone of Crist.", Tyndale 1525, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, The Beza N.T. 1599, Mace N.T. 1729, Wesley's translation 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, the Living Oracles 1835, Murdock's translation of the Syriac 1852 - "the judgment seat of MESSIAH", Calvin's Version 1856, Youngs 1898, J. B. Phillips 1962, Hebrew Names Version, Lamsa's 1933 translation of the Syriac Peshitta - "for we must all stand before the judgment seat of CHRIST.", the NKJV 1982, Third Millennium Bible of 1998, the Lawrie Translation 1998,  and Green's literal of 2005.  

 

Also reading in Romans 14:10 - "the judgment seat of CHRIST" are The Word of Yah Bible 1993, The Interlinear Greek N.T. 1997 (Larry Pierce), The Koster Scriptures 1998 -"the judgment seat of MESSIAH.", God's First Truth 1999, The Last Days Bible 1999, The Tomson N.T. 2002, The Apostolic Polyglot Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, The Pickering N.T. 2005, the Bond Slave Version 2009, English Majority Text Version 2009, the Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010 - "the judgment seat of MESSIAH", The Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010,  the Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), the Conservative Bible 2011, The Work of God's Children Bible 2011, The World English Bible 2012, The Far Above All Translation 2014, The Modern Literal N.T. 2014 and the Modern English Version 2014.

 

Foreign Language Bibles

 

Among foreign language Bibles that have the correct reading of "judgment seat of CHRIST" are the Afrikaans Bible 1953, the Arabic Smith & Van Dyke Bible, the Albanian Bible, the Basque Navarro-Labourdin N.T., the Romainian Cornilescu Bible, Dutch Staten Vertaling, the French Martin 1744, French Ostervald 1996 and the Frence Louis Segond 21 of 2007 - "nous comparaîtrons tous devant le tribunal DE CHRIST.", Luther's German bible 1545 and the 2000 Schlachter Bible - "Richterstuhl CHRIST", the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras of 1569, the Reina Valeras of 1909, 1960, 1995 and 2011 - "Porque todos estaremos delante del tribunal del CRISTO.", the Russian Synodal Version and the Victor Zhuromsky N.T. - "Все мы предстанем на суд Христов.", the Czeck BKR bible, the Polish Biblia Gdanska, the Hungarian Karoli - "KRISZTUS", the Italian Diodati of 1649 and the Nuova Diodati of 1991 -"Poiché tutti dobbiamo comparire davanti al tribunale di CRISTO.", the Portuguese A Biblia Sagrada em Portugues, and the Almeida Corrigida E Fiel 2009 - "Pois todos havemos de comparecer ante o tribunal de CRISTO.",The Polish Updated Gdansk Bible 2013 - Wszyscy bowiem staniemy przed trybunałem CHRYSTUSA.”, The Romanian Fidela Bible 2014, and Cornilescu Revised 2014 - "de judecată al lui HRISTOS.", the Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos 1998 - “sa harapan ng upuan ng paghatol ni CRISTO.” and the Smith and Van Dyke Arabic Bible - واما انت فلماذا تدين اخاك. او انت ايضا لماذا تزدري باخيك. لاننا جميعا سوف نقف امام كرسي المسيح. = "the judgment  seat of CHRIST."

 

And the Modern Greek New Testament and of course the Traditional Greek New Testament used by the Greek Orthodox churches all over the world today - "πάντες γὰρ παραστησόμεθα τῷ βήματι τοῦ Χριστοῦ"

 

 

John Gill on Romans 14:10 - the judgment seat of Christ - CHRIST will be the Judge, he is so appointed by his Father, and is every way fit for it, BEING GOD OMNISCIENT AND OMNIPRESENT; and when he shall appear in his glory, he shall sit on his judgment seat, the dead will be raised, the books will be opened, and all shall be summoned to appear before him”

 

 

Matthew Henry - “Christ will be the judge, and he has both authority and ability to determine men's eternal state according to their works, and before him we shall stand as persons to be tried, and to give up an account, expecting our final doom from him, which will be eternally conclusive. To illustrate this (v. 11), he quotes a passage out of the Old Testament, which speaks of Christ's universal sovereignty and dominion, and that established with an oath: As I live (saith the Lord), every knee shall bow to me. It is quoted from Isa. 45:23…HERE IS PROOF OF CHIRST’S GODHEAD: HE IS LORD AND HE IS GOD, EQUAL WITH THE FATHER. Divine honour is due to him, and must be paid.”

 

 

Get yourself a copy of God's pure, inspired and 100% true words - the Authorized King James Holy Bible - and you can be sure that you have the true "book of the LORD".  Accept no substitutes.  God bless. 

 

Will Kinney 

 

For more examples of how Many Modern Versions Degrade the Person of the Lord Jesus Christ.

 

See http://brandplucked.webs.com/mat2724justdegrade.htm

 

Matthew 27:24; Matthew 28:6; Luke 23:42; John 7:8-10; Matthew 5:22; Mark 9:24; Philippians 2:6-8; 1 Corinthians 10:9, 1 Corinthians 15:47; Micah 5:2; 1 Timothy 3:16 and "Worship" or "Kneel before"? Romans 14:10-12

 

Romans 14:21 KJB - "It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby thy brother stumbleth, OR IS OFFENDED, OR IS MADE WEAK." 

ESV (NIV, NASB, NET, Holman, Jehovah Witness New World Translation) - "It is good not to eat meat or drink wine or do anything that causes your brother to stumble." 

The capitalized words - ἢ σκανδαλίζεται ἢ ἀσθενεῖ -  are again found in the Majority of all Greek texts and even in Vaticanus, plus the Sinaiticus correction, P46 (which is the earliest known mss. dating at 200 A.D.) and D.

 

The evidence for this reading is simply overwhelming, being included not only in Vaticanus but in P 46 as well. They are also found in the Old Latin ar, b, d, dem, e, f, g, o, x and z. They are found in the Syriac Harclean, Armenian, Georgian and Slavonic ancient versions and so quoted by such early church writers as Cyprian, Ambrosiaster, Basil, Chrysostom, Augustine and Theodoret. And yet many modern critical texts omit these words.  


The extra words "OR IS OFFENDED, OR IS MADE WEAK" (ἢ σκανδαλίζεται ἢ ἀσθενεῖ) are found in Wycliffe 1395, Tyndale 1525, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540 "anye thynge whereby thy brother stombleth, eyther falleth, or is made weak.", Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops Bible 1568, Geneva Bible 1587, The Beza N.T. 1599, Douay-Rheims 1610, Wesley N.T. 1755, Whiston's N.T. 1745, Worsley 1770, Living Oracles 1835, Noyes N.T. 1869, The Alford N.T. 1870, Darby 1890, Youngs 1898, World English Bible the NKJV 1982, The Word of Yah 1993, Interlinear Greek N.T. 1997 (Larry Pierce), Lawrie Translation 1998, the Third Millennium Bible 1998, Last Days Bible 1999, God's First Truth 1999, Tomson N.T. 2002, The Apostolic Polyglot Bible 2003, Green's Literal 2005, The Pickering N.T. 2005, The Concordant Version 2006, Bond Slave Version 2009, The Christogenea N.T. 2009, The English Majority Text Version 2009, Jubilee Bible 2010, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible 2011, The Far Above All Translation 2011, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Mebust), Natural Israelite Bible 2012 - " by which your brother stumbles or is offended or is made weak.", Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011, Conservative Bible 2011, World English Bible 2012, The Biblos Bible 2013, The Modern English Version 2014 and the Holy Bible Modern Literal Version 2015.

 


Even some modern Critical Text versions that usually follow the Westcott-Hort text include the words. Among these are the Amplified Bible 1987 (put out by the same people who give us the NASB), the brand new 2014 ISV (International Standard Version), the Lexham English Bible of 2012 and, in this instance, all the Catholic bible translations like the Douay-Rheims 1582, Douay 1950, St. Joseph NAB 1970, New Jerusalem bible 1985 and the 2009 Catholic Public Domain Version of 2009 "by which thy brother is offended OR SCANDALIZED OR WEAKENED."

 

Foreign Language Bibles

The words are also included in the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano de Valera 1602, the Reina Valeras 1909-2011 - "ni nada en que tu hermano tropiece, ó se ofenda ó sea debilitate." (But the 2015 Reina Valera Actualizada version has now omitted them), Luther's German Bible 1545,  German Schlachter Bible of 2000 - "woran dein Bruder Anstoß oder Ärgernis nehmen oder schwach werden könnte.", the Italian Diodati 1649 and La Nuova Diodati 1991 and New Riveduta of 2006 -"che porti tuo fratello a inciampare o ad essere scandalizzato o essere indebolito.", the Portuguese A Biblia Sagrada and Almeida Corregida E Fiel - "coisas em que teu irmão tropece, ou se escandalize, ou se enfraqueça.", the French Martin 1744, Ostervald of 1996 and the French Louis Segond 21 of 2007 "ce qui peut faire broncher ton frère, ou le scandaliser, ou l'affaiblir."


 

It is also the reading of the Romanian Cornilescu Bible and Romainian Fidela Bible 2009 - "prin care fratele tău se împiedică, sau este poticnit, sau este făcut slab.", the Russian Synodal Bible 1876 - "отчего брат твой претыкается, или соблазняется, или изнемогает.", Hungarian Karoli bible "a miben a te atyádfia megütközik vagy megbotránkozik, vagy erõtelen.", the Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos 1998 -"o makakapagdulot ng pagdaramdam o makakapagpahina sa iyong kapatid.",

 

the Modern Greek Bible - " εις το οποιον ο αδελφος σου προσκοπτει η σκανδαλιζεται η ασθενει." as well as the 2010 Society of Biblical Literature Greek New Testament.

 

and the Modern Hebrew Bible - טוב שלא תאכל בשר ולא תשתה יין ולא תעשה דבר אשר יתנגף בו אחיך או יכשל או יחלש׃


In spite of all this evidence, versions like the RV, NASB, RSV, ESV, NIV, NET, Jehovah Witness New World Translation and Holman Standard follow mainly two manuscripts (A and C) and omit  the words "OR IS OFFENDED, OR IS MADE WEAK" - all done on a strictly "scientific method" don't ya know ;-)

 

Dan Wallace's NET version also omits all these words and then has one of the goofiest justifications for tampering with the text that you will find.  He says: "A large number of mss, some of them quite important (Ì46 vid א2 B D F G Ψ 0209 33 1881 Ï lat sa), read “or to be offended or to be made weak” after “to stumble.” The shorter reading “to stumble” is found only in Alexandrian mss (א* A C 048 81 945 1506 1739 pc bo). Although external evidence favors inclusion, internal evidence points to a scribal expansion, perhaps reminiscent of 1 Cor 8:11-13. The shorter reading is therefore preferred."

In other words, in spite of massive and widespread and ancient evidence for this reading, on the basis of a couple of manuscripts and some very creative speculation on Wallace's part, he deletes these words from the Bible text. 

The evidence for this reading is simply overwhelming, being included not only in Vaticanus but in P 46, which is the earliest known Greek manuscript in existence. And yet many modern critical texts versions omit these words.  

This is not "science" folks. It's got far more in common with the Witches Brew in Shakespeare's Macbeth than it does with anything that could remotely be called "science" - "Double, double toil and trouble; Fire burn, and caldron bubble." 

  

Romans 15:7 KJB - "Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received US to the glory of God."

 

ESV (NIV, NET, Holman, Jehovah Witness NWT 2013 Revision, Catholic versions) - "Therefore welcome one another as Christ has welcomed YOU, for the glory of God."

 

"received US" is the reading of the majority of Greek texts including Vaticanus and D. It is also the reading of the previous Westcott-Hort, and the Nestle Critical texts. I have a Nestle 4th edition 1934 copy, and it clearly says US in the text.  I also have a Nestle 21st edition 1975, and it also says "received US". This is also the reading of the Geneva Bible, Tyndale, Wesley's translation, Youngs, NKJV AND the NASBs from 1963 to 1995.

However Sinaiticus, A and C read "received YOU" and now the newer Nestle-Aland critical texts have "scientifically" changed their minds and the previous reading and decided to now follow Sinaiticus and so versions like the RSV, ESV, NIV, NET, ISV, Holman Standard and all Catholic versions  say "received YOU".  

The Jehovah Witness New World Translation has done the same thing. I have a hard copy of the 1961 NWT (revised 1970) and it clearly says "as the Christ also welcomed US". But now in 2013 the once again Revised J.W. New World Translation has come out and it now says: "as the Christ also welcomed YOU."

So once again we see the every changing, fickle nature of the so called "SCIENCE" of textual criticism, and the fact that the so called "oldest and best manuscripts" are in a state of confusion and contradictory readings among themselves.

 

The Traditional Reformation text says "as Christ also received US to the glory of God" and so read the following Bible translations: Tyndale 1534, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Worsley Version 1770, Webster's translation 1833, Living Oracles 1835, Rotherham's bible 1902, the NKJV 1982, The Word of Yah 1993, NASB 1963-1995, the Hodges & Farstad MajorityText, Interlinear Greek N.T. 1997 (Larry Pierce), Lawrie Translation 1998, God's First Truth 1999, Tomson N.T. 2002, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, Bond Slave Version 2009, Faithful N.T. 2009, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), Conservative Bible 2011, Hebraic Roots Bible 2012, the 2012 Natural Israelite Bible - “just as the Messiah also received US to the glory of Yahweh.” and Holy Bible Modern English Version 2014 - "just as Christ also welcomed US". 

 

The final reading we will consider in the book of Romans reveals the blatant absurdity of this so called "art and science of textual criticism". This is a mind blower. You may not even believe it, but it is true and is well documented. The so called Critical Text has actually changed FOUR times over the last hundred years, and the multiple choice "Bible of the Month Club" versions make this confusion very clear.


The Bible Babble Buffet Merry-go-round in Action

Romans 15:19 - "SPIRIT OF GOD", "HOLY SPIRIT" or "the SPIRIT"?

In the King James Bible we read: "Through mighty signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit OF GOD; so that from Jerusalem, and round about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Chirst."

RV 1885, ASV 1901, RSV 1952, 1971 - " by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the HOLY SPIRIT, so that from Jerusalem and as far round as Illyr′icum I have fully preached the gospel of Christ

NASB 1995 (NIV 1973, 1978 and 1984 editions) - "in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of the SPIRIT; so that from Jerusalem and round about as far as Illyricum I have fully preached the gospel of Christ."

The NIVs of 1973, 1978 and the 1984 editions all omitted the words "of God" and read: "by the power of signs and miracles, through the power of the Spirit."

However, in 2011 the new NIV has changed its underlying Greek text and now reads: "by the power of signs and wonders, through the power of the Spirit OF GOD."


The Jehovah Witness New World Translation

Likewise this UBS/Nestle-Aland/Vatican Critical Text version continues to change its text.

The 1961 New World Translation says - "with the power of HOLY SPIRIT".

But the 2013 Revision of the Jehovah Witness NWT now reads - "with the power of GOD'S SPIRIT".

Textually speaking, this is a very interesting verse in that it reveals a great deal about the mindset of the men behind the multitude of conflicting modern versions.

The reading of "the Spirit OF GOD" is that of the Majority of all texts, including Sinaiticus, D correction and P46, which is about 200 years older than Vaticanus. "Spirit of GOD" (pneumatos theou) is found in Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, the King James Bible 1611, Wesley's N.T. 1755, Worsely Version 1770, Darby 1890, Young's 1898, the NKJV 1982 and Lamsa's translation of the Syriac Peshitta.

Also reading "the Spirit OF GOD" are The Word of Yah 1993, Interlinear Greek N.T. 1997 (Larry Pierce), Lawrie Translation 1998, God's First Truth 1999, The Tomson N.T. 2002, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, Bond Slave Version 2009, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012, World English Bible 2012 and the Holy Bible, Modern Literal Version 2015.

The modern versions of the NRSV, ESV, ISV, NET, Holman Standard also all read "Spirit of GOD", just as the King James Bible.

When Westcott and Hort first came out with their totally revised Greek text in the 1885 Revised Version, their text read: "power of the HOLY SPIRIT" (pneumatos hagiou) and so read the Revised Version of 1881, the ASV 1901, the RSV of 1952 and the 1989 Revised English Bible.

"HOLY Spirit" is the reading found in codex Alexandrinus and D original.

I have in my possession three different Nestle-Aland Greek texts, which is basically the Westcott-Hort text that underlies most modern versions since 1885. All three of these are different here in Romans 15:19. The one from 1934 (4th edition) says: HOLY Spirit.

The one dated 1975 (Nestle 21st edition) changed this to simply "the SPIRIT", thus omitting "Holy" and "God".

This reading, the one found in the NASB and the Conservative Bible 2011, comes from only one manuscript and that is Vaticanus. The NASB and the NIV 1984 both follow only one Greek manuscript here and read: "through the power of the SPIRIT".

Then sometime between the 1975 edition and the 1993 edition, the Nestle-Aland text changed for the third time and now reads: "the Spirit OF GOD", as has the King James Bible for almost 400 years now. We can clearly see here the constantly changing opinions of the noted scholars behind the modern versions.

Here is a brief chart showing the conflicting readings of just this one phrase.

The Catholic Connection


The Catholic versions are very much like the "new" Vatican Versions (NIV, ESV, NASB, Holman, ISV, NET) in that they are constantly changing their underlying Greek texts, and in the main, follow the Vatican manuscript.

The 1582 Douay-Rheims and the 1950 Douay and the 1968 Jerusalem bible went with "the Holy Ghost" (1582) and "the Holy Spirit" (1950, 1968).

Then in 1970 the St. Joseph New American Bible and the 1985 New Jerusalem read "the Spirit OF GOD", BUT the latest Catholic Public Domain Version of 2009 has now gone back to "the HOLY Spirit".

"power of the SPIRIT OF GOD" -Tyndale, Geneva, KJB, NKJV, NRSV, ESV, ISV, Holman and now the NIV 2011 edition.

"power of the HOLY SPIRIT" - RV, ASV, Rotherham 1902, RSV, Jerusalem Bible 1968, 2009 The Sacred Bible Catholic Public Domain Version, Jehovah Witness NWT 1961 edition.

"power of the SPIRIT" - NASB 1963-1995 editions, NIV 1973, 78 and 1984 editions, Conservative Bible 2011.

These are the FACTS and anyone can verify them for themselves. The next time you hear somebody who does not believe that ANY Bible in ANY language IS NOW the inspired and 100% true Holy Bible try to talk you into abandoning your King James Bible in favor of "the latest findings of the art and science of Textual Criticism", tell him to go fly a kite.

 

 

Romans 16:1 Phebe - a servant, a deacon or a deaconess?

KJB - I commend unto you Phebe our sister, which is A SERVANT of the church which is at Cenchrea:

NIV - 1973, 1978, 1982 editions - “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, A SERVANT of the church in Cenchrea”

Footnote: Or, deaconess.

NIV 2011 edition - “ I commend to you our sister Phoebe, A DEACON of the church in Cenchreae.”

Footnote: Or, a servant.

Deacons, as a church office, are men; not women.

1 Timothy 3:12 - “ Let the deacons be the husbands of one wife, ruling their children and their own houses well.”

The underlying Greek word in question is διακονον - diakonos. But it has several meanings.  In the KJB it is translated as DEACON only twice and these are in 1 Timothy 3:8 and 12 where it refers to one of the offices in the local church. We have elders and deacons.  But both were men who were to be married to godly wives.

The main meaning of the word is minister, meaning a servant, and the word SERVANT itself.  It is used in such places as John 2:5 and 2:9 where Jesus turned the water into wine.

“His mother saith unto the SERVANTS, Whatsoever he saith unto you, do it.”  John 2:5

 “When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was: (but the SERVANTS which drew the water knew;) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom” John 2:9

The verb form of this word is diakoneo and it also means TO SERVE or to MINISTER - as in Hebrews 6:10 - “ For God is not unrighteous to forget your work and labour of love, which ye have shewed toward his name, in that YE HAVE MINISTERED  to the saints, and DO MINISTER.”

In John 12:26 both the verb and the noun are used, and are translated the same way in the NIV.

John 12:26 -“If any man SERVE me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my SERVANT be: if any man SERVE me, him will my Father honour.

The NIV itself translates the word diakonos as servant or servants some 20 times, minister 4 times, attendants once, and deacon 3 times. 

The NIV had it right in the first 3 editions, but the latest 2011 NIV edition went off the rails by labeling a woman as a deacon. 

Most Bibles throughout history have translated Romans 16:1 as “Phebe our sister, which is a SERVANT of the church which is at Cenchrea”.  - or “minister” meaning a servant.

 

The NASB, ESV, NKJV, Holman Standard and NET versions all have “our sister Phoebe, A SERVANT of the church”

But there is a growing movement in these modern times to promote women to the place of leadership in the church by making them either Pastors or Deacons, especially in the  more liberal churches  - contrary to what the Bible teaches.

 

The Roman Catholic Connection 

Douay-Rheims bible 1610, 1950 - “Phoebe, our sister, WHO IS IN THE MINISTRY of the church”

Catholic St. Joseph New American Bible 1970 - “Phoebe, who is A DEACONESS of the church”

Catholic New Jerusalem bible 1985 - “our sister Phoebe, A DEACONESS of the church”

Jehovah Witness New World Translation - “Phoebe our sister, who is A MINISTER of the congregation”

The Liberal RSV was the first major English translation to change this verse.  

RSV 1952, 1971 - “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, A DEACONESS of the church at Cen′chre-ae,”

The NRSV of 1989 went with: “I commend to you our sister Phoebe, A DEACON of the church at Cenchreae”

But the revision of the revision of the revision - the ESV, went back to the more traditional and biblical - “our sister Phoebe, A SERVANT of the church at Cenchreae”, BUT it still has that footnote in it that says: “Or DEACONESS”.

The Contemporary English Version 1995 says: “I have good things to say about Phoebe, who is A LEADER  in the church at Cenchreae.”


Romans 16:24  KJB —  “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.”

ESV (ASV, RSV, NRSV, NIV English version, NET, Jehovah Witness NWT, Catholic St. Joseph NAB, NASB 1960 - 1972 editions, Good News Translation 1992, The Message 2002, Easy-to-Read Version 2006, Christogenea N.T. 2009 and New Living Translation 2015) - OMIT  

NASB 1977, 1995 editions, Holman Standard 2009 - [The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen.] 


See the full study here - 

http://brandplucked.webs.com/romans1624.htm


These are the FACTS and anyone can verify them for themselves. The next time you hear somebody who does not believe that ANY Bible in ANY language IS NOW the inspired and 100% true Holy Bible try to talk you into abandoning your King James Bible in favor of "the latest findings of the art and science of Textual Criticism", tell him to go fly a kite.


My website is found here where you will find numerous articles defending the King James Bible as the only true Book of the Lord, and revealing many of the errors in the multiple-choice, modern versions around today, none of which anyone believes are the inspired and 100% true words of God.

Will Kinney

Return to Articles - http://brandplucked.webs.com/kjbarticles.htm


 

Didn't Erasmus and the Reformation Editors Use Textual Criticism?

 

http://libertyparkusafd.org/lp/Burgon/reports%5CDidn%27t%20Erasmus%20and%20the%20Reformation%20Editors%20Use%20Textual%20Criticism.htm

 

1

 

Wilbur Pickering, ThM. PhD. writes in his book The Identity of the New Testament Text, 2014 - 

"Bruce Metzger said, "It is understandable that in some cases different scholars will come to different evaluations of the significance of the evidence".A cursory review of the writings of textual scholars suggests that Metzger's "in some cases" is decidedly an understatement. In fact, even the same scholars will vacillate, as demonstrated by the "MORE THAN FIVE HUNDRED CHANGES" introduced into the third edition of the Greek text produced by the United Bible Societies as compared with the second edition (the same committee of five editors prepared both).

K. Aland, M. Black, C.M. Martini, B.M. Metzger, and A. Wikgren, eds., The Greek New Testament, third edition (New York: United Bible Societies, 1975), p. viii. Although this edition is dated 1975, Metzger's Commentary upon it appeared in 1971. The second edition is dated 1968. IT THUS APPEARS THAT IN THE SPACE OF THREE YEARS ('68-'71), WITH NO SIGNIFICANT ACCRETION OF NEW EVIDENCE, THE SAME GROUP OF FIVE SCHOLARS CHANGED THEIR MIND IN OVER 500 PLACES. IT IS HARD TO RESIST THE SUSPICION THAT THEY WERE GUESSING."

http://www.walkinhiscommandments.com/Pickering/Miscellaneous/Pickering%20-%20Identity%20of%20the%20NT%204th%20edit..pdf

Didn't Erasmus and the Reformation Editors Use Textual Criticism?

 

http://libertyparkusafd.org/lp/Burgon/reports%5CDidn%27t%20Erasmus%20and%20the%20Reformation%20Editors%20Use%20Textual%20Criticism.htm