Kine and Cattle and the "archaic" language of the King James Bible
You can now listen to a teaching video brother Dave Flang and I made about this topic on Youtube here -
The Hebrew word translated as KINE in the King James Bible is pay-rah and it is found some 27 times in the Old Testament. It is translated by three different English words in the KJB - 1. Kine 2. Cow and 3. Heifer. The King James Bible uses the word KINE 19 times, Cow 2 times and Heifer 6 times.
Genesis 41:1-2 “…Pharaoh dreamed a dream; and, behold, he stood by the river. And, behold, there came up out of the river seven well favoured KINE and fatfleshed, and they fed in the meadow.”
Job 21:10 “Their bull gendereth, and faileth not; their COW calveth, and casteth not her calf.”
Hosea 4:16 “For Israel slideth back as a backsliding HEIFER: now the LORD will feed them as a lamb in a large place.”
KINE - Any English dictionary will tell us that the word kine is the plural of cow. It is now considered to be archaic, but the word is still found in many English Bible translations. Websters 1828 dictionary says: “KINE - the plural of cow. But cows, the regular plural, is not in general use.”
Not only does the King James Bible use the word KINE here in Genesis 41: 2, 3, 4, 18, 19, 20, 26 and 27 but so do the following Bible translations - Wycliffe 1395, Tyndale 1534 (he translated Genesis), Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549, the Bishops’ Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, the Douay-Rheims bible 1610, the KJB 1611, the Bill Bible 1671, the Thomson Bible 1808, the Longman Version 1841, The Jewish Family Bible 1864, The Revised English Bible 1877, the Revised Version of 1881 (20 times), The Sharpe Bible 1883, The Revised Version 1885, Darby 1890 (26 times), Young’s 1898 (15 times), Douay-Rheims 1899 American edition (17 times), the ASV of 1901 (13 times), Rotherham's Emphasized Bible 1902 uses the word KINE 10 times as in 1 Samuel 6:10 “The men, therefore, did so, and took two milch KINE, and fastened them in the wagon, - but, their calves, shut they up in the shed.”, The Ancient Hebrew Bible 1907, the Jewish Publication Society (JPS) of 1917 (uses KINE 20 times), the Hebrew Publishing Company Bible of 1936, The New Jewish Version 1985 - "Curd of KINE and milk of flocks." (Deuteronomy 32:14), and the UpDated Bible Version of 2003-2004 some 13 times!
Other English Bibles that still use the word KINE to refer to the plural of COWS are The Word of Yah 1993, God's First Truth 1999, Sacred Scriptures Family of Yah 2001, Sacred Name King James Bible 2002, The Revised Geneva Bible 2005, the Bond Slave Version 2009, and The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible 2011 - "Out of which came up seven KINE, very beautiful and fat: and they fed in marshy places.", The Revised Douay-Rheims Bible 2012 - "Out of which came up seven KINE, very beautiful and fat". (Genesis 41:2 etc.)
How is that for “archaic”!?
God forbid that we would have to learn a new or unfamiliar word that is found in the only English Bible believed by multiplied thousands even today to be the complete and inerrant words of the living God!
In our fallen state Satan plays on our inconsistent logic, our ignorance, and our basic laziness to turn us from the truths of God to his lies and deceptions.
For example, in order to sell you a new product the businessman has to convince you of your “need” for this “new and improved” product you didn’t even know you needed. Those promoting the sales and use of these new ver$ion$ that keep coming off the presses tell you that you or your kids just can’t understand that old fashioned language of the King James Bible anymore and you “need” something that speaks to you in your own language.
The truth of the matter is that every one of these “New and Improved Bible” salesmen...er...scholars have abandoned faith that ANY Bible in any language is the complete and inerrant words of God. They are just coming out with a product they can make money on. They don’t really care what’s inside this product. It’s all going to change again very soon anyway. So they try to sell you their “new and improved model”, and then a little further down the road they will sell you another one.
Parents and the younger generation would NEVER apply this twisted form of logic regarding “a few hard to understand words” to any other field of learning. But they think we need to do this when it comes to the inerrant words of the living God.
If a person wants to learn something about any other field of knowledge, they will devote themselves to learning a few new terms or unfamiliar words about art, or medicine, law enforcement, the legal system, theatre, music, the movie industry, car repair, sports, hobbies, cooking or pottery making.
ANY field of knowledge will require that we learn a new vocabulary list of technical words that have to do with whatever we wish to learn.
But it seems that when it comes to learning about the revelation God has given us in His Book, then the rules suddenly change and we become ignorant dolts with the brain capacity of a zucchini.
NOBODY seriously believes that ANY of these endless and ever changing “bibles” are the complete and inerrant words of God - Nobody. Not even the people who keep churning them out year after year.
And THEN our “scholars” who keep producing them tell us that if we REALLY want to know what God said, then we need to learn ancient Hebrew and Greek!
Of course none of them is really sure WHICH “the” Hebrew and “the” Greek is the right Hebrew and Greek. Obviously to learn Hebrew and Greek you have to learn a whole new LANGUAGE and not just a few unfamiliar and archaic words you might find in the Bible that God has clearly set His mark of approval on for over 400 years now and is the only one still believed by multiplied thousands to be the inerrant words of the living God.
See the article "The Old Fashioned Language of the King James Bible" for examples of this bait and switch tactic used by the modern version promoters.
You will also find a rather interesting Vocabulary Test taken from the modern versions you might like to try and see how you do on it. Take the NIV/NKJV Vocabulary Test and see how you do. What percentage of 21st century high school graduates do you think would get a passing grade?
Genesis 2:20 “And Adam gave names to all CATTLE and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.”
Genesis 30:32 “I will pass through all thy flock today, removing from thence all the speckled and spotted CATTLE AMONG THE SHEEP, and the spotted and speckled AMONG THE GOATS: and of such shall be my hire.”
Sheep and goats among the cattle? Yes, it’s true, as we shall soon see.
Genesis 30:40 “And Jacob did separate the LAMBS, and set the faces of the flocks toward the ringstraked, and all the brown in the flock of Laban; and he put his own flocks by themselves, and put them not unto Laban’s CATTLE.”
Genesis 47:16-17 "And Joseph said, Give your CATTLE; and I will give you for your CATTLE, if money fail. And they brought their CATTLE unto Joseph: and Joseph gave them bread in exchange for HORSES, and for the FLOCKS, and for the CATTLE of the herds, and for the ASSES: and he fed them with bread for all their CATTLE for that year."
In the language of the Bible the general term CATTLE includes cows, bulls, horses, oxen, sheep, heifers, steers, bullocks and calves.
The Holman Bible Dictionary tells us “CATTLE are domesticated quadrupeds used as livestock. In the Bible, the term commonly refers to all domesticated animals. Ox, bull, calf, and cow are among the names for cattle in the Bible. Sheep, goats, and other domesticated animals are also included under the designation of cattle - Genesis 1:24” (Holman Bible Dictionary)
Wiktionary gives the meanings of the word “cattle” as “Domesticated bovine animals - cows, bulls, steers etc. Certain other livestock, such as SHEEP, PIGS OR HORSES.”
Oxford Dictionary - Cattle - “large ruminant animals with horns and cloven hoofs, domesticated for meat or milk, or as beasts of burden; cows. The cattle family ALSO INCLUDES THE SHEEP, GOATS, goat-antelopes, and antelopes.”
Infoplease Dictionary and Dictionary.com - “Cattle 1. bovine animals. Such animals together with other domesticated quadrupeds, as HORSES, SWINE, etc.”
Online Plain Text English Dictionary - “Cattle - Quadrupeds of the Bovine family; sometimes, also, including all domestic quadrupeds, as SHEEP, GOATS, HORSES, MULES, ASSES AND SWINE.”
Collaborative International Dictionary of English - “Cattle - Quadrupeds of the Bovine family; sometimes, also, including all domestic quadrupeds, as SHEEP, GOATS, HORSES, MULES, ASSES, AND SWINE.”
Genesis 1:24 - “And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, CATTLE, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.”
The KJV Dictionary Definition of Cattle is - “Beasts or quadrupeds in general, serving for tillage, or other labor, and for food to man. In its primary sense, the word includes camels, horses, asses, all the varieties of domesticated horned beasts or the bovine genus, sheep of all kinds and goats, and perhaps swine.”
This is why the King James Bible and several others refer to the “lesser cattle”, meaning the “cattle” of a smaller size.
Isaiah 7:25 - “And on all hills…there shall not come thither the fear of briers and thorns: but it shall be for the sending forth of oxen, and for the treading of LESSER CATTLE.”
The “lesser cattle” would include such things as lambs, rams and he goats.
Easton Bible Dictionary - Small cattle. Next to herds of neat cattle, sheep formed the most important of the possessions of the inhabitants of Palestine.
Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Cattle - The word commonly used in OT is miqneh , meaning primarily possessions or wealth oxen, CAMELS, SHEEP, AND GOATS being the only wealth of peoples in a nomadic stage of civilization. It includes sometimes horses and asses.”
Moorish Bible Dictionary - “cattle: THE WORD INCLUDES ALSO SHEEP AND GOATS.”
Webster’s Dictionary (from Studylight.com) Cattle - Beasts or quadrupeds in general, serving for tillage, or other labor, and for food to man. In its primary sense, THE WORD INCLUDES CAMELS, HORSES, ASSES, all the varieties of domesticated horned beasts or the bovine genus, SHEEP OF ALL KINDS AND GOATS, AND PERHAPS SWINE. In this general sense, it is constantly used in the scriptures.
“Lesser cattle” is also the reading in Isaiah 7:25 in the Douay-Rheims 1610, Webster’s 1833, The Jewish Family Bible 1864, Rotherham’s Emphasized bible 1902 - "the lesser cattle", Darby 1890 (small cattle), The Word of Yah 1993, the KJV 21st Century Version 1994, the Third Millennium Bible 1998, the Jubilee Bible 2010, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010 - "the treading of LESSER CATTLE.", Conservative Bible 2011 - "lesser CATTLE", and The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible 2011 - "the treading of LESSER CATTLE."
The Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011 has "the lesser livestock"
The same Hebrew word used here for LESSER CATTLE is used in Ezekiel 34:17 - “And as for you, O my flock, thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I judge between CATTLE and CATTLE, between THE RAMS AND THE GOATS.”
The word “cattle” used in reference to rams and goats is also used here in the Bishops’ Bible 1568, Douay-Rheims 1610, Webster’s 1833, the Longman Version 1841, The Boothroyd Bible 1853, the Revised Version 1885, the Jewish Publication Society (JPS) 1917, The Word of Yah 1993, KJV 21st Century Version 1994, the Third Millennium Bible 1998, Bond Slave Version 2009, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Conservative Bible 2011, and The Work of God's Children Illustrated Bible 2011 - "between CATTLE AND CATTLE".
In fact, this same Hebrew word (#7716 she) is translated in other places as “the lamb” (Genesis 22:7,8) “sheep” (Exodus 22:1) and “ewe” (Leviticus 22:8)
Now that we are living in what may well be “the last days” before the return of our Lord Jesus Christ in power and glory to judge the wicked, reward the righteous and set up His kingdom, fewer and fewer of those who profess to be among God’s redeemed people believe in the inerrancy of the Bible - ANY Bible. The polls show this to be true.
I and many thousands of other Christians believe God has acted in history to give us the true “book of the LORD” (Isaiah 34:16) that is His complete, preserved and inerrant words of absolute historical and doctrinal truth and this Book is the King James Holy Bible.
All of grace, believing the Book - the Authorized King James Holy Bible.
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Notes from the Internet
Brother Tenno Groppi, who is a strong King James Bible believer and has a wonderful ministry of teaching Creationism verse Evolution, wrote us about an important verse found in Genesis 1:25 where the KJB correctly has: "And God made the beast of the earth after HIS kind, and CATTLE after THEIR kind, and every thing that creepeth after HIS kind: and God saw that it was good."
In the case of the beast and the creeping thing after their individual species and thus "after HIS kind". But in the case of the cattle, there are several species included in this collective group as bulls, cows, horses, camels, sheep, goats and pigs, and so the KJB is correct by referring to "cattle after THEIR kind."
More Notes From the Internet
A Christian brother and fellow King James Bible believer John posted these insightful comments:
How about all those "archaic" Medical doctor words? vestigial, carpal, vascular, tibia? These are too hard for me to learn so I think we should change them to "not needed small thing", "wrist bones", "blood highway", "leg bone".
What if any first year medical student insisted this be done for his convenience? or stated this to his teacher? They would laugh him out of the school and he would never be a Doctor. (Next time you meet a doctor whose native language is English, ask him how they feel if you messed with Shakespeare's plays. That would be a fun conversation.)
Yet this is a fully accepted practice with new bible versions. Nice. "Know only 50 English words? Have we got a bible version for you!"