"Scholars That Cannot See "
The Authorized King James Holy Bible begins this section in Acts 13:16 with Paul in the city of Antioch being asked by the rulers of the synagogue to speak a word of exhortation.
Acts 13:19 KJB - "Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, give audience. The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an high arm brought he them out of it. And about the time of forty years suffered he their manners in the wilderness. And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Chanaan, HE DIVIDED THEIR LAND TO THEM BY LOT."
(Note: I will deal with the textual variant in 13:19 at the end.)
Acts 13:19 KJB - AND AFTER THAT HE GAVE UNTO THEM JUDGES ABOUT THE SPACE OF FOUR HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS, UNTIL Samuel the prophet."
Notice the context is clearly speaking about the history from the time of the Exodus out of Egypt, 40 years in the wilderness, the dividing of the land by lot, and then he says he gave them judges for the space of 450 years till the time of Samuel. The critics argue that they did not have judges for 450 years, and so the KJB must be wrong.
The reading found in the King James Bible for Acts 13:20 is that of the Majority of all Greek texts, as well as E, P, Psi, and the Syriac Peshitta. It is also the reading of Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, The Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, The Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, the Beza N.T. 1599, The Bill Bible 1671, The Clarke N.T. 1795, The Revised Translation 1815, The Longman Version 1841, The Morgan N.T. 1848, The Commonly Received Version 1851, Julia Smith Translation 1855, The Revised N.T. 1862, The Alford N.T. 1870, The Smith Bible 1876, The Sharpe Bible 1883, The Clarke N.T. 1913, NKJV 1982, The Third Millennium Bible 1998, God's First Truth 1999, The Tomson N.T. 2002, The Lawrie Translation 1998, Green's Modern KJV 2000, A Conservative Version 2005, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005 (Vince Garcia), The Mebust Bible 2007, The Jubilee Bible 2010, The Hebrew Transliteration Scripture 2010, The Conservative Bible 2010, and The Bond Slave Version 2012.
Foreign language Bibles that read like the KJB are Spanish Reina Valera 1909, 1960, 1995, Italian Diodati 1649 and the New Diodati 1991, the French Louis Segond 1910, French Ostervald 1996, Luther's German Bible 1545, the Modern Greek texts used by the Orthodox churches all over the world.
The NASB, NIV, ESV, RSV, and all Catholic versions read very differently based on Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, A, C, and the Vulgate - the minority Alexandrian texts upon which most modern versions are based.
The NASB, NIV remove the words "about the space of 450 years" from verse 20 and place them at the end of verse 19. The NASB, NIV read: "And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he distributed their land as an inheritance- ALL OF WHICH TOOK ABOUT 450 YEARS: and after these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet."
When we look at 1 Kings 6:1 we read a different chronology and time period that seems to be in conflict with both readings as found in Acts 13. There we read: "And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD."
There are many different "explanations" given for this apparent contradiction, and many erroneously criticize the KJB and its texts. Here are a few comments made by some commentators and various Christian apologetic sites.
The People's New Testament commentary says: "The apparent discrepancy between Paul and the writer of 1 Kings is removed, however, by the Revision, based on the oldest and best Greek text." (This is a bunch of baloney, as will shortly be demonstrated)
Robinson's Word Pictures criticizes the KJB with the following: "The difficulty found in the Textus Receptus (King James Version) thus disappears with the true text. The four hundred and fifty years runs therefore from the birth of Isaac to the actual conquest of Canaan and does not cover the period of the Judges." (Again, more foolishness that will be proven to be incorrect.)
In his Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics, well-known Greek scholar Daniel B. Wallace stated that “certain formulaic phrases are often employed,...referring to the previous events” (1996, p. 333, emp. added). He then listed Acts 13:20 as one of those instances—and therein lies the key to the alleged discrepancy between 1 Kings 6:1 and Acts 13:20. When the Alexandrian manuscripts are translated properly, it becomes clear that Paul’s statement of “about 450 years” in Acts 13:20 was “referring to the previous events” related in verses 17-19, not the following period representing the time of the judges. The best rendering of this fact comes from the NIV.
This from Apologetic Press on the Web http://www.apologeticspress.org/rr/rr2002/r&r0206a.htm
The apparent discrepancy between the two passages under consideration has to do with the fact that certain Greek manuscripts differ from others in their recording of Paul’s statement in Acts 13. When we compare various translations of the verse, it quickly becomes clear that the particular wording of the verse is in question.
And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he divided their land to them by lot. And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet (Acts 13:19-20, KJV).
And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, he gave them their land for an inheritance, for about four hundred and fifty years: and after these things he gave them judges until Samuel the prophet (Acts 13:19-20, ASV).
He overthrew seven nations in Canaan and gave their land to his people as their inheritance. All this took about 450 years. After this, God gave them judges until the time of Samuel the prophet (Acts 13:19-20, NIV).
Each one of these translations has the prepositional phrase “about four hundred and fifty years” describing a different set of events. The KJV says the period of the judges lasted 450 years. The ASV indicates that the children of Israel were given the promised land for 450 years. The NIV says that “all this” (the events described in verses 17-19—choosing of the fathers, the Exodus, the wilderness wandering, and the distribution of the land) took about 450 years.
In order to clarify this, we turn to two modern translations, both of which are based on the Alexandrian text, an older, more reliable text than the Textus Receptus, upon which the KJV is based. The New American Standard Version translates Acts 13:19 like this: “And when He had destroyed seven nations in the land of Canaan, He distributed their land as an inheritance—all of which took about four hundred years.”
The New International Version offers further illumination: "The God of the people of Israel chose our fathers; he made the people prosper during their stay in Egypt, with mighty power he led them out of that country, he endured their conduct for about forty years in the desert, he overthrew seven nations in Canaan and gave their land to his people as their inheritance. All this took about 450 years. The “all” of verse 20 refers to the time of the patriarchs (when God “chose” Abraham and Isaac) until the inheritance of Canaan."
More from Apologetics Press Acts 13:20 http://www.apologeticspress.org/rr/rr2002/r&r0206a.htm
In a footnote in his commentary on the book of Judges, renowned scholar C.F. Keil, speaking of the Alexandrian reading of the text, stated that the phrase under consideration “can hardly be understood in any other sense than this, that Paul reckoned 450 as the time that elapsed between the call of Abraham (or birth of Isaac) and the division of the land, namely 215 + 215” (1996, 2:203, emp. added).
On the other hand, some non-KJB only commentators have noted the problems with the views presented by the modern versions based on the Alexandrian texts.
Barnes Commentary www.crosswire.orgActs 13:20
"Four hundred and fifty years. This does not agree with the chronological statements of the Old Testament, as the numbers stand in modern copies. (1 Kings 6:1.) Various conjectures have been offered to account for the discrepancy."
"He gave unto them judges. Men who were raised up in an extraordinary manner to administer the affairs of the nation, to defend it from enemies, about the space of four hundred and fifty years. This is a most difficult passage, and has exercised all the ingenuity of chronologists. The ancient versions agree with the present Greek text.(Note - Barnes correctly states that most ancient versions, except the Latin Vulgate, agree with the KJB reading).
"The difficulty has been to reconcile it with what is said in 1 Kings 6:1. "And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel were come out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel .... he began to build the house of the Lord." Now if, to the forty years that the children of Israel were in the wilderness, there be added the four hundred and fifty said in Acts to have been passed under the administration of the judges, and about seventeen years of the time of Joshua, forty for Samuel and the reign of Saul together, and forty for the reign of David, and three of Solomon before he began to build the temple, the sum will be five hundred and ninety years, a period greater by one hundred and ten years than that mentioned in 1 Kings 6:1."
"Various ways have been proposed to meet the difficulty. Doddridge renders it, "After these transactions, [which lasted] four hundred and fifty years, he gave them a series of judges," etc., reckoning from the birth of Isaac, and supposing that Paul meant to refer to this whole time. (Note - This is the approach taken by the NIV, NASB, RSV.) But to this there are serious objections. (1.) It is a forced and constrained interpretation, and one manifestly made to meet a difficulty. (2.) There is no propriety in commencing this period at the birth of Isaac. That was in no manner remarkable, so far as Paul's narrative was concerned; and Paul had not even referred to it. Luther and Beza think it should be read three hundred, instead of four hundred. But this is a mere conjecture, without any authority from Mss. Vitringa and some others suppose that the text has been corrupted by some transcriber, who has inserted this without authority."
Then Mr. Barnes seems to toss up his hands in confusion and sides with the "scribal error" theory or the fanciful history of Josephus rather than believing in an inerrant Bible. He continues: "None of these explanations are satisfactory. In the solution of the difficulty we may remark, (1.) that nothing is more perplexing than the chronology of ancient facts. The difficulty is found in all writings; in profane as well as sacred. Mistakes are so easily made in transcribing numbers where letters are used, instead of writing the words at length, that we are not to wonder at such errors. (2.) Paul would naturally use the chronology which was in current, common use, among the Jews. It was not his business to settle such points; but he would speak of them as they were usually spoken of, and refer to them as others did. (3.) There is reason to believe that that which is here mentioned was the common chronology of his time. It accords remarkably with that which is used by Josephus. Thus (Antiq. b. vii. chap. iii. five hundred and ninety-two years after the Exodus out of Egypt, etc. This would allow forty years for their being in the wilderness, seventeen for Joshua, forty for Samuel and Saul, forty for the reign of David, and four hundred and fifty-two years for the time of the judges and the times of anarchy that intervened. This remarkable coincidence shows that this was the chronology which was then used, and which Paul had in view. (4.) This chronology has the authority, also, of many eminent names. See Lightfoot, and Boyle's Lectures, chap. xx. In what way this computation of Josephus and the Jews originated, it is not necessary here to inquire. It is a sufficient, solution of the difficulty that Paul spoke in their usual manner, without departing from his regular object by settling a point of chronology. (Barnes)
Refuting the Alexandrian reading of the RV, NASB, RSV, NIV.
First of all, the NIV, NASB have to add several words to their texts to make it come out making the sense they give it. Both the NIV, and NASB add an extra noun and a verb to come up with "ALL THIS TOOK about 450 years", which are not in any Greek text.
The minority Alexandrian texts followed by the NIV, NASB, RSV, and Catholic versions literally say: "And he overthrew seven nations in the land of Canaan and gave their land as an inheritance by lot ABOUT 450 YEARS, and after these things he gave them judges until Samuel."
These faulty Greek texts have the 450 years referring to the time it took to overthrow the nations and divide the land, which is way off the mark. The Revised Version, the ASV, the RSV and the NRSV, all of which follow the same Alexandrian texts, give a different meaning than the NASB, NIV.
The RSV and NRSV say: "he gave them their land as an inheritance FOR ABOUT 450 years. After that he gave them judges until the time of the prophet Samuel." This also is historically incorrect. The land was still their inheritance during the time of the judges and all the kings too!
A skeptic's website, which tries to debunk the Bible as being full of errors, notes this reading of the modern versions and argues that it makes their case even worse. http://home.freeuk.com/jesusmyth/er006.htm
Here he states: "Interestingly, the RSV and other versions say: Wilderness wandering - 40 years, overthrow of nations and establishent of the land - 450 years, AFTER THIS, the judges followed until Samuel arose. This being so, with the Judges period not being included in the 450 year period, makes the overall period even longer, resulting in the contradiction with 1 Kings 6:1 even more apparent."
A "Christian" website provides this explanation. http://www.tektonics.org/tsr904.html remarks on these passages:
"This at best is a case of spilled ink -- technically inerrantists may point out that this was what was said by Paul, and was recorded accurately even if he was wrong. But it isn't necessary to make that point and diss Paul thusly. The critic above, and the KJV as well, are quoting from versions that use the inferior Western textual tradition which does read as above suggesting 450 years of Judges. The "about" 450 years -- an estimate -- refers to the 400 years in Egypt, the 40 of the Exodus, and the perhaps as much as 10 years for the conquest. Critics should research textual issues before they go spouting off at the mouth!"
A couple of big problems about this Tektonics commentary should be noted. First of all, he is totally wrong about the KJB using "inferior Western textual tradition". The reading found in the KJB is that of the Majority of all Greek texts from all over the world, as well as the ancient Syriac Peshitta Version, which predates the erroneous Vaticanus reading. In fact it is the WESTERN Latin Vulgate which matches the NIV, NASB, RSV and not the KJB!
Secondly, he is fudging the truth when he says the stay in Egypt was 400 years, when the Bible clearly says it was 430 years. Neither is "the 400 years in Egypt" the subject in these verses; it is God's bringing them OUT OF Egypt! Then you add the other 40 + 10 he mentions and you come out with 480, not the 450 years of the NIV. He would do well to take his own advice and examine the textual issues before spouting off at the mouth.
Refuting the Alexandrian, Bible of the Month Club Crowd.
Notice there is NOTHING in the context to suggest "from the birth of Isaac", as most of them explained it. More importantly, the chronology does not fit at all. If the time referred to is when "God chose our fathers" this would begin with Abraham, or at the latest with Isaac, as they themselves have stated in their explanations.
Genesis chapter 12 records the calling of Abraham and the promise of a seed when he was 75 years old. Isaac was not born till 25 years later when Abraham was 100 years old (Genesis 21:5). Then Jacob was born when Isaac was 60 years old (Genesis 25:26). Jacob did not enter Egypt till he was 130 years old (Genesis 47:9), and the Bible clearly says that the children of Israel spent 430 years in the land of Egypt before God brought them out of that land. See Exodus 12:40,41 and Galatians 3:17.
In other words, from the time of the calling of Abraham till the Exodus would be 585 years, (or 560 years counting from Isaac) and then another 40 years in the desert and at least 7 years more conquering the nations and dividing the land as an inheritance, which comes out to 632 years - not the 450 of the NIV, NASB!! Just do the math. The NIV, NASB, RSV, ESV, ISV etc. are all wrong and so are the commentators who try to explain this faulty reading.
How do we explain the reading as found in the majority of ancient versions, texts, and the King James Bible? Some of the explanation I am about to offer came from some ideas suggested by pastor Joey Faust and I include a few of his thoughts on the matter. I think he missed the correct answer but his ideas led me into what I believe is the correct and Biblical way to reconcile these apparent contradictions.
How Many and Which Years are being counted to the 4th Year Of Solomon?
1 Kings 6:1 "And it came to pass in the four hundred and eightieth year after the children of Israel WERE COME out of the land of Egypt, in the fourth year of Solomon's reign over Israel, in the month Zif, which is the second month, that he began to build the house of the LORD."
Notice that this section begins counting the 480 from the time they "WERE COME out of the land of Egypt, in the 4th year of Solomon's REIGN OVER ISRAEL." "Were COME" where? Well, into Israel. So it seems to be counting from the time they were actually IN the land of Israel. The time period does NOT include the 40 years of wandering in the wilderness.
In Acts 13:16 we read: "Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, give audience. 17. The God of this people of Israel chose our fathers, and exalted the people when they dwelt as strangers in the land of Egypt, and with an high arm brought he them out of it. 18. And about the time of FORTY YEARS suffered he their manners IN THE WILDERNESS. 19. And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Chanaan, he divided their land to them by lot. 20. AND AFTER THAT he gave unto them judges about the space of four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet. 21 And afterward they desired a king: and God gave unto them Saul the son of Cis, a man of the tribe of Benjamin, by the space of forty years. 22 And when he had removed him, he raised up unto them David to be their king; to whom also he gave testimony, and said, I have found David the son of Jesse, a man after mine own heart, which shall fulfil all my will."
Compare the chronology of the two passages. The passages are both literal and historical. What is the number of years they each give for the history of Israel from the entering into the Promised Land of Israel to the 4th year of Solomon? 1 Kings 6:1 gives the period as 480 years. Let us notice how many years Paul gives for the same period:
1. 450 years - period of various judges
2._______ Samuel (Acts 13:20)
3. 40 years - Saul (Acts 13:21)
4. _______ David (Acts 13:22)
5. _______ Solomon until temple
The amount of years Paul supplies in the text are as follows: 450 + 40 = 490 years.
Already there is an apparent problem, and we have not even filled in the spaces Paul left blank! 1st Kings gives the same time period as being only 480 years. But let's go ahead and add the missing numbers. The time we are calculating is the number of years from the entrance into the land of Israel to the 4th year of Solomon when they began to build the temple:
Let's work our way backward. First we must include 3 years for Solomon's reign until the temple. (1Kings 6:1). Then before Solomon, David reigned 40 years. (1Kings 2:11, Acts 13:22) , and before king David Saul reigned for 40 years (Acts 13:21). So far we have 83 years, right?
Then notice that Acts 13:20 says that the 450 years of the judges extends "until" Samuel the prophet. Well, how long did Samuel actually "judge" Israel? We need to include the approximate number of years that Samuel "judged" Israel because this number would also be included in the number of 480 years as found in 1 Kings 6:1. The Bible does not tell us directly, but we can make some pretty good inferences from what IS in the Bible.
Samuel was a young boy when God began to reveal Himself to him. The Bible then tells us: "And Samuel grew, and the LORD was with him, and did let none of his words fall to the ground. And all Israel knew that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the LORD. (1 Samuel 3:19-20) But he was not yet a judge. Eli was still the judge of Israel at this time, and Eli judged Israel for 40 years until he died at the age of 98. See 1 Samuel 4:15-18 "Eli was ninety and eight years old... and he died... And he had judged Israel forty years."
At the death of Eli the ark was captured by the Philistines for 7 months and then returned to Kirjathjearim where it remained for another 20 years. See 1 Samuel chapter 6 and 7:1-2. "the ark abode in Kirjathjearim..the time was long; for it was twenty years, and all the house of Israel lamented after the LORD."
It isn't until AFTER this time recorded in 1 Samuel 7 that we actually read of Samuel beginning "TO JUDGE" the children of Israel at least some 20 years after the death of Eli, and to help deliver them from the hand of the Philistines. "And Samuel JUDGED the children of Israel in Mizpeh...and took a sucking lamb, and offered it for a burnt offering unto the LORD, and Samuel cried unto the LORD for Israel, and the LORD heard him....And he went from year to year in circuit to Bethel, and Gilgal, and Mizpeh, and JUDGED Israel in all those places. And his return was to Ramah; for there was his house; and there he JUDGED Israel." See 1 Samuel 7:6, 16-17. During Samuel's later years God used him to appoint Saul as king, so Samuel was the last of the judges of Israel.
Though the Scriptures do not specifically tell us how long he was a judge, about 55 to 60 years seems to be a very good estimate. If he was in his teens or early 20's when God began to use him as a prophet, and it wasn't till 20 years later, after the death of Eli, that Samuel actually began to judge Israel, and he died as an old man (in 1 Samuel 8:1 he is already described as being "old" and this was several years before he actually died), A few years before his death Samuel anointed Saul to be king. So approximately 55 to 60 years as judge of Israel seems to be a pretty good estimate.
Therefore, to the 490 years Paul specifically mentions in Acts 13:20-21 (450 years judges + 40 years Saul as king) , we must add the total from the extra periods he left blank in order to find out how many years there were from entering the Promised Land till the 4th year of king Solomon.
If Samuel judged Israel for approximately 55 to 60 years, and David was king for 40 years- "And the days that David reigned over Israel were forty years" (1 Kings 2:11) and to this we add the first 3 years of king Solomon who reigned after David, then the total comes out to approximately 587 to 593 years from the time the children "were come" into the land of Israel until the building of the temple in the 4th year of king Solomon. Yet the number of years mentioned in 1 Kings 6:1 for this same period of time is only 480 years. There is a difference of 108 to 113 years.
So how do we account for this difference? I think the solution is actually rather simple. (Some of these ideas were suggested by pastor Joey Faust)
Let's assume that both 1st Kings 6:1 and Acts 13:20 are both absolutely and historically correct. Let us then infer that Paul has given us the length of the period in ordinary, common years (with no specialized criteria). On the other hand, let us infer that the author of 1st Kings has also given us a correct answer, but to a different question. He has given us the length of the same period, minus certain years that do not meet the criteria of his chronology. Let us suppose that the author of 1st Kings is not answering the question of how long the period was in ordinary, normal years with no qualifications. Let us suppose that he is giving us the number of years minus, let's say, the years Israel was delivered over to its enemies in bondage and servitude throughout that period of the "Judges".
Now let us test this hypothesis. To do so let us review. Paul in Acts 13 (with his blanks filled in) gives the period as 588 to 593 years. 1st Kings 6:1 gives the period as 480 years. We have assumed that 1 Kings 6:1 is a "specialized" chronology, and that it therefore leaves out the years of servitude and bondage. To test this theory let us go through the Book of Judges and see the history of the period. Let us then count the number of times Israel was then given over to servitude and persecution. Then, let us add up the total of these years of servitude:
#1 = 8 years
Judges 3:8 Therefore the anger of the LORD was hot against Israel, and he sold them into the hand of Chushanrishathaim king of Mesopotamia: and the children of Israel served Chushanrishathaim EIGHT years.
#2 = 18 years
Judges 3:14 So the children of Israel served Eglon the king of Moab EIGHTEEN years.
#3 = 20 years
Judges 4:3 And the children of Israel cried unto the LORD: for he had nine hundred chariots of iron; and TWENTY years he mightily oppressed the children of Israel.
#4 = 7 years
Judges 6:1 And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD: and the LORD delivered them into the hand of Midian SEVEN years.
#5 = 18 years
Judges 10:8 And that year they vexed and oppressed the children of Israel: EIGHTEEN years, all the children of Israel that were on the other side Jordan in the land of the Amorites, which is in Gilead.
#6 = 40 years
Judges 13:1 And the children of Israel did evil again in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD delivered them into the hand of the Philistines FORTY years.
Let us now total these times of servitude and persecution during the period mentioned by 1st Kings and Paul:
8 + 18 + 20 + 7 + 18 + 40: = 111 years Now let us again remember our previous totals: -Paul: 588 to 593 years -1 Kings 6:1: 480 years -Total discrepancy = 108 to 113 years
Israel served under bondage and persecution for 111 years in the Book of Judges. We are therefore missing the mark by some 2 or 3 years. Do these extra couple of years one way or the other overthrow our hypothesis? No, not in the least. Notice carefully what the apostle says in Acts 13:20.
"And after that he gave unto them judges ABOUT THE SPACE OF four hundred and fifty years, until Samuel the prophet."
Two to three years would not be a stretch at all in regard to that word "about". Thus we have a match beyond any reasonable doubt! The Holy Ghost decided to give the length of a certain period of time in two different ways. In one way He gave the years in an ordinary fashion. In the other way (1 Kings 6:1) He listed the years in a special, relative fashion. He did not count the years Israel was delivered over to their enemies!
Now if the Holy Ghost has counted years in two different ways in two different historical passages, and then revealed to us the very years He was omitting in His specialized chronology, it certainly stops the mouth of any Bible critic who thinks he has found some kind of unexplainable error in the King James Bible. The reading found in such versions as the NASB, NIV, ASV, ESV, RSV, Holman etc. IS in error, but not the one found in the true Bible - the Authorized King James Holy Bible.
To prove an error one would have to prove that the Holy Ghost is not using a specialized chronology as He does in other places - for instance, the list of the 42 generations from Abraham to Christ in Matthew chapter one. If there is an apparent contradiction in the number of years or anything else in the King James Bible, I assure you, the problem is with your own understanding of how God divides things. The Bible sometimes counts years in such a way that it "skips" those that do not fit into the framework it is counting in."
If you look at the context of 1 Kings 6:1 we see the writer is referring to the years of freedom from bondage. He starts dating from "after the children of Israel WERE COME out of Egypt" (COME where? into the land of Israel) , and continues to the time of greatest glory under Solomon, the son of David. He does not include in this chronology the 111 years that during the time of these judges were spent in bondage and servitude under their enemies.
Other examples of different ways of counting years would be the age of Ahaziah listed as both 42 and 22, both of which are correct from different standpoints.
See my article on this at: http://brandplucked.webs.com/howoldwasahaziah.htm
We also have the difference of 7 years or 3 years of famine sent upon David for numbering the armies of Israel.
The Alexandrian reading found in the NASB, RSV, NIV,etc. does not fit the historical timeline found in the Old Testament. The majority reading found in the KJB does fit when understood in this way. In spite of all the big name scholars who criticize the King James reading, upon further examination the modern NASB, ASV, NIV, ESV themselves are found to be in error, and are not the pure words of God as found in the KJB. Never doubt the truth of the infallible words of God as found in the King James Holy Bible.
Second Part - Acts 13:19
Acts 13:19 KJB - “ And when he had destroyed seven nations in the land of Chanaan, HE DIVIDED THEIR LAND to them BY LOT.”
ESV, NIV, NASB - “And after destroying seven nations in the land of Canaan, HE GAVE THEM THE LAND AS AN INHERITANCE.”
There are several textual variants in this verse and the following, but the main difference under discussion at the moment is between “DIVIDE BY LOT” versus “GIVE THE LAND AS AN INHERITANCE.”
The Greek verb in the Traditional Reformation texts is κατεκληροδοτησεν, and this means “to divide by LOTS”. It is a single word and can be broken up into 3 parts. Literally it is “according to lots to give”. Kleros, which is the middle part of this verb, means “lots” and is used in such places as “to cast LOTS” in Matthew 27:35, Mark 15:24, Luke 23:34 and John 19:24.
This is the Greek text of the Textus Receptus, Erasmus, Stephanus, Beza, Scrivener, the Apostolic Polyglott Greek “κατεκληροδότησεν”, and the Modern Greek Bible - “διεμερισεν εις αυτους κατα κληρον την γην αυτων.” = to measure to them BY LOT (κατα κληρον) their land.”
The so called “Majority” text divides their readings into 5 sections, and tells us that this is the reading of one of those 5 sections but it doesn’t list the manuscripts that make up that section.
The Westcott-Hort/UBS/Vatican critical text has a different word here - κατεκληρονομησεν την γην αυτων - and this verb means “to give as an inheritance” instead of to “divide by lots”.
Agreeing with the KJB reading of “divided BY LOTS” are Wycliffe 1395, Tyndale 1534 - “and devided their londe to them BY LOT.”, Coverdale 1535 “and parted their londe amonge them BY LOTT.”, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew’s Bible 1549 “and deuyded theyr lande to them BY LOT.”, the Bishops’ bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587 - “deuided their land to them BY LOT.”, The Beza N.T. 1599, The Bill Bible 1671, Daniel Mace N.T. 1729, Whiston’s N.T. 1745, John Wesley N.T. 1755, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, The Clarke N.T. 1795, The Revised Translation 1815, Webster’s Translation 1833, Julia Smith Translation 1855, Sawyer N.T. 1858, Young’s literal 1898 - “He did divide BY LOT to them their land.”, Emphatic Diaglott N.T. 1864 - “he distributed BY LOT to them the land of them.”, Worrell Translation 1904, KJV 21st Century 1994, Third Millennium Bible 1998, Jubilee Bible 2000 -2010 “he divided their land to them BY LOT.”
Among foreign language Bibles that read “distributed to them BY LOTS” are Martin Luther’s German Bible 1545, Schlachter Bible 2000 and Modernized German Bible - “und teilete unter sie nach dem Los jener Lande.” = “he divided their land BY LOT”, the Italian Diodati 1649 “distribuì loro A SORTE il paese di quelle.”, the French Martin 1744 - “il leur en distribua le pays PARLE SORT.” = “distribute BY LOT”, the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1649, Cipriano de Valera 1602, Cipriano Revisada 1865 and Reina Valera 1909 and the Spanish Jubilee Bible 2010 - “les repartió POR SUERTE la tierra de ellas.” = “divided to them BY LOTS”, the Portuguese A Biblia Sagrada and the Almeida Corregida - “deu-lhes POR SORTE a terra deles.”, the Romanian Cornilescu Bible “pentru aproape PATRU SUTE cincizeci de ani.”, Russian Synodal Version 1876, Hungarian Karoli Bible -“azoknak földöket sorsvetés által elosztá nékik.” = “allotted their land to them by CASTING LOTS.”, the Dutch Staten Vertaling Bible - “heeft Hij hun door het lot het land derzelve uitgedeeld.” = “distributed their land BY LOT.”, Finnish Bible 1776 - “ja arvalla jakoi heille niiden maan.” and the Smith and van Dyke’s Arabic Bible - ثم اهلك سبع امم في ارض كنعان وقسم لهم ارضهم بالقرعة.
The Catholic Connection
The previous Douay-Rheims of 1582 and the Douay of 1950 both agreed with the KJB Traditional reading of “divided their land to them BY LOT.” But then the St. Joseph NAB 970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985 followed the critical text and read like the ESV, NIV, NASB “gave them their land AS AN HERITAGE.”
But, they are not done yet. Now the 2009 Catholic Public Domain Version has come out and it goes back to “he DIVIDED THEIR LAND AMONG THEM BY LOT.”