The Shifting Sands of "Scientific" Scholarship in 1 Peter
The purpose of this comparative study is to show the fickle and ever-changing nature of the so called "science of textual criticism". One can easily show the same things occurring in any book of the New Testament. There are many more examples than those listed in this study. I have shortened a previous longer study I did, and retained these examples to clearly demonstrate that the modern versions are a mass of confusion, and they have no sure words of God.
Peculiarities of Vaticanus in First Peter.
Codex Vaticanus is highly exalted among modern scholars as being the best Greek manuscript, and its readings are primarily responsible for the omission of hundreds and hundreds of words from the King James Bible.
The following is a list of readings or omissions that are found ONLY in Vaticanus. Sinaiticus, the other darling of the Textus Corruptus crowd, does follow the KJB readings in these few instances.
This information is not found in the UBS, or Nestle-Aland texts. It is not to their advantage to let you know these things. This information comes from the book Codex B and its Allies, A Study and an Indictment, by Herman C. Hoskier, Volume #1 pages 417-418.
1 Peter 1:1 to the strangers in ....Asia, AND BITHYNIA. - Vaticanus alone omits AND BITHYNIA
1:11 the Spirit OF CHRIST which was in them - Vaticanus alone omits OF CHRIST.
1:21 who by him DO BELIEVE (pisteuontas) - Vaticanus and A read: who by him FAITHFUL (pistous), against all others.
2:1 laying aside all...hypocrisies, and ENVIES, and all evil speakings - Vaticanus alone reads MURDERS instead of ENVIES.
2:6 he that believeth ON HIM shall not be confounded - Vaticanus alone omits ON HIM (ep autoo)
2:24 who his own self bare OUR sins - Vaticanus alone reads YOUR sins.
2:25 FOR YE WERE (eete gar) as sheep going astray - Vaticanus alone omits FOR YE WERE.
3:4 of a MEEK and QUIET spirit - only Vaticanus reverses and reads: of a QUIET and MEEK spirit.
3:18 suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he might bring us TO GOD (τω θεω) - only Vaticanus omits these two words.
5:3 "Neither as being lord's over God's heritage, but being examples to the flock."
μηδ ως κατακυριευοντες των κληρων αλλα τυποι γινομενοι του ποιμνιου
Vaticanus omits the entire verse, though it is found in all the others.
5:8 the devil...seeking WHOM (tina) he may devour - Vaticanus alone omits WHOM.
5:12 by SilVanus, a faithful brother - Vaticanus alone reads: by SilBanus.
Now, let's look at some concrete examples of the Bible Bable found in this precious book of First Peter.
1 Peter 1:22 KJB - "Seeing ye have purified your SOULS in obeying the truth THROUGH THE SPIRIT (δια πνευματος) unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a PURE (καθαρας) heart fervently"
NIV - "Now that you have purified YOURSELVES by obeying the truth so that you have sincere love for each other, love one another deeply, from ***the heart." (***omits "pure" - καθαρας)
Note: The NIV continues more and more to paraphrase rather than translate. The words for "your souls" are "τας ψυχας υμων" and the NIV correctly has "souls" in 1 Peter 1:9 "salvation of your souls"; 2:11 "war against the soul" and 25 "the Shepherd and Bishop of your souls", but in 1:22 it translated "purified your souls" as "YOURSELVES", in 3:20 "eight souls" as "PEOPLE" and in 4:19 "commit the keeping of their souls" as "THEMSELVES".
ESV - "Having purified your SOULS by your obedience to the truth for a sincere brotherly love, love one another earnestly from a PURE heart." (omits "through the Spirit - δια πνευματος, but includes "pure" - καθαρας)
In this verse, the important words "THROUGH THE SPIRIT" (δια πνευματος), tell us that it is through the power of God that we believe the gospel. This reading is found in the Majority of all manuscripts, including K, L, P, Old Latin, Slavonic ancient version and is so quoted by Vigilius, Theophylact and Priscillian.
The Catholic Connection
The Egyptian texts followed by the NASB, RSV, ESV, NIV, NET, Jehovah Witness New World Translation and ALL Catholic versions omit the words "through the Spirit". As for the word "pure" some include it and others do not.
In the phrase - Love one another with a PURE heart - the word PURE is found in the Majority, Sinaiticus original, P 72 and C.
The NASB, NIV, RSV, NRSV, and the Catholic Versions (Douay-Rheims, St. Joseph, New Jerusalem) as well as the Jehovah Witness versions omit the word "PURE" (καθαρας)
It is interesting to see the duplicity of the NASB footnotes. In the NASB 1972 and 1977 editions, their footnote tells us: "SOME manuscripts read "clean" (or pure). SOME!!?? Some implies just a few or not many!
Then in the NASB 1995 edition their footnote says: "TWO early manuscripts read "a clean heart". This misleading footnote implies that only two early manuscripts contain this reading, when in fact the vast majority of all Greek texts, including P72, Sinaiticus original, C, L, P, Psi, the Old Latin c and p, as well as the Syriac Harclean, the Coptic Boharic, Sahidic, Armenian and Slavonic ancient versions testify to the reading found in the KJB.
The Critical text itself continues to change. I have hard copies of the Nestle critical text 4th edition 1934 and the 1975 21st edition and both entirely omit the word for "clean" (καθαρας). But the latest UBS, Nestle-Aland Greek texts now include the word, but [in brackets] - εκ [καθαρας] καρδιας = "out of a [clean] heart"
The RV, ASV, RSV, NRSV, NIV 1984-2011, Lexham bible 2012 continue to omit the word "CLEAN" or PURE
but now other Critical Text versions like the ESV 2001-2011, Amplified 1987, Holman Standard 2003 - 2009, Dan Wallace's NET version 2006, the Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011, The Voice 2012 and ISV (International Standard Version) 2014 include the reading "out of a PURE heart".
Both the words "THROUGH THE SPIRIT" and "out of a PURE heart" are found in Tyndale 1534, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Wesley's N.T. 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, Webster's Translation 1833, the Living Oracles 1835, Julia Smith 1855, Young's literal 1898, New Life Version 1969, the NKJV 1982, Interlinear New Testament Greek 1997 (Larry Pierce), the Third Millennium Bible 1998, Lawrie Translation 1998, God's First Truth 1999, A Conservative Version interlinear 2005, Apostolic Bible Polyglot Greek 2003, The Evidence Bible 2003, Hebrew Names Version, J.P. Green's literal 2005, The Resurrection Life New Testament 2005, Bond Slave Version 2009, the Robinson-Pierpoint Byzantine Greek interlinear, English Majority Text Version 2009, English Jubilee Bible 2010, Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), Far Above All Translation 2011, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, Conservative Bible 2011, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Mebust), the World English Bible 2012, The Hebraic Roots Bible 2012, the 2012 Natural Israelite Bible and the Holy Bible Modern Literal Version 2015.
Among Foreign language Bibles that contain both "THROUGH THE SPIRIT" and "out of A PURE heart" are Luther's German Bible 1545 and German Schlachter Bible 2000 - "durch den Geist zu ungefärbter Bruderliebe und habt euch untereinander brünstig lieb aus reinem Herzen", the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano de Valera 1602, R.V. 1909 - 1995, Reina Valera Gómez 2010 - "MEDIANTE EL ESPIRITU, para el amor fraternal no fingido, amaos unos a otros entrañablemente, de corazón PURO", the French Martin 1744, Ostervald 1996 and Louis Segond 2007 - "en obéissant PAR L'ESPRIT à la vérité pour avoir un amour fraternel sincère; aimez-vous donc ardemment les uns les autres d’un cœur PUR.”, the Italian Diodati 1649, Nuova Diodati 1991 and Riveduta 2006 - "MEDIANTE LO SPIRITO, per avere un amore fraterno senza alcuna simulazione, amatevi intensamente gli uni gli altri di PURO cuore", the Portuguese Almeida Purificada 1681 - "Purificando as vossas almas PELO ESPIRITO na obediência à verdade, para o amor fraternal, näo fingido; amai-vos ardentemente uns aos outros com um coraçäo PURO", Russian Synodal Version 1876, the Dutch Staten Vertaling, Smith & vanDyke's Arabic bible, 2014 Romanian Fidela Bible, the Afrikaans Bible 1953,
the Modern Greek Bible - "Καθαρισαντες λοιπον τας ψυχας σας με την υπακοην της αληθειας δια του Πνευματος προς φιλαδελφιαν ανυποκριτον, αγαπησατε ενθερμως αλληλους εκ καθαρας καρδιας"
and the Modern Hebrew Bible - זכו את נפשתיכם על ידי הרוח בשמעכם בקול האמת לאהבת אחים בלא חנפה ואהבתם איש את רעהו אהבה חזקה בלב טהור׃
The King James Holy Bible - God's pure and inerrant words in the English language. Accept no substitutes.
1 Peter 2:7 - KJB "Unto you therefore which believe HE IS PRECIOUS: but unto them which be disobedient, the stone which the builders disallowed, the same is made the HEAD OF THE CORNER."
There are no significant textual variants in this verse. All Bibles are using the same text but several of them come up with very different meanings. υμιν ουν η τιμη τοις πιστευουσιν απειθουσιν δε λιθον ον απεδοκιμασαν οι οικοδομουντες ουτος εγενηθη εις κεφαλην γωνιας
"to you who believe HE IS PRECIOUS". That it is Christ Himself who is precious to us that believe is the reading of Tyndale 1525, Coverdale 1535 - " Vnto you therfore which beleue, he is precious", the Great Bible 1540 - "Unto you therfore whych beleue he is precious", Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Whiston's N.T. 1745 - "Unto you therefore who believe he is precious", John Wesley's N.T. 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Sawyer N.T. 1858, Godbey N.T. 1902, Twentieth Century N.T. 1904 - "It is to you, then, who believe in him that he is precious NKJV, RSV 1952 - "To you therefore who believe, he is precious", J.B. Phillips 1962, NRSV 1989 - "To you then who believe, he is precious", The Word of Yah 1993, the KJV 21st Century 1994, the Third Millennium Bible 1998, God's First Truth 1999, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, Complete Apostle's Bible 2005, Bond Slave Version 2009, Jubilee Bible 2010, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Conservative Bible 2011, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Mebust), and the 2012 Natural Israelite Bible - "Unto you, therefore, who believe he is precious."
Goodspeed N.T. has - “It is you, therefore, who believe who see its value” - the value is in Christ.
The 1998 Lawrie Translation says: "So to you who believe, the valued one." But it still is referring this to Christ. Dan
Wallace's NET version is pretty good with: "So you who believe see his value"
The NASB gives us the ambiguous reading: "This precious value, then, is for you who believe"
The NIV adds a word not found in any text, but has the same basic meaning, by saying: "to you who believe, THIS STONE is precious", but at least it refers to Christ as being what is precious.
But the worst of them all are the ESV 2001-2011, and the Holman Standard of 2003 which say: "So THE HONOR IS FOR YOU WHO BELIEVE."
Then the Holman Standard 2009 went even further and now says: "SO HONOR WILL COME TO YOU WHO BELIEVE" and the Common English Bible of 2011 (another Critical text version) actually says: "SO GOD HONORS YOU WHO BELIEVE." !!!
Is there some sort of honor or merit given to us because we believe the gospel? That is what these Bible Babble Buffet versions teach here, isn't it.
Guess who else translates it in a similar way. Yep, the Catholic Douay of 1950 says: "For you, therefore, who believe, is this honor" and the New Jerusalem bible 1985 has: "To you believers it brings honor"
In the second part of the verse, the HEAD OF THE CORNER is literally what all texts say - kephalen gonias (κεφαλην γωνιας) - head of corner. The head of the corner is the huge corner stone that forms the foundation of a building to which the walls are aligned.
The HEAD OF THE CORNER is the reading of Wycliffe 1395, the Great Bible, Bishops' Bible, Geneva Bible, Whiston N.T. 1745, Wesley 1755, Revised Version 1881, Darby 1890, Young's 1898, the ASV 1901, Godbey N.T., RSV 1952 - "become the head of the corner", NRSV 1989, The Word of Yah 1993, KJV 21st Century 1994, Third Millennium Bible 1998, Lawrie Translation 1998, Tomson N.T. 2002, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, Concordant Version 2006, Context Group Version 2007, the Jubilee Bible 2010, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, Biblos Interlinear 2011, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Mebust)
The ESV and Holman say: "the cornerstone" but with a footnote telling us the Greek literally reads "the head of the corner".
The NASB paraphrases with: "the VERY corner STONE"
The NKJV with "the CHIEF cornerSTONE"
But the NIVs 1973, 1978 and 1982 editions totally turn things upside down and say: "has become THE CAPSTONE."
Now, the capstone is the last stone placed on a building, not the first and principal one. But wait! Now the "new" New International Version 2011 has come out and it has gone back to the reading of CORNERSTONE!!! The previous NIVs give us a meaning that is contradictory to all the other versions.
Get a King James Holy Bible and stick with it. Don't settle for an inferior substitute.
1 Peter Chapter 3 - In this chapter there are several textual differences found in the modern versions, like the NASB, NIV, RSV, ESV, where they differ from the King James Bible.
All of these changes in the modern versions are due to their reliance upon a handful of Alexandrian manuscripts. The Majority of all texts agree with the KJB readings. Yet, as we shall see, these Alexandrian texts constantly disagree among themselves, and the modern versions present a confused front. Some will at times follow one reading, and some another.
The words in this chapter either omitted or changed due to the textual differences are as follows: 1 Peter 3:4 MEEK and QUIET spirit; 3:7 the GRACE OF LIFE; 3:8 be COURTEOUS; 3:9 KNOWING that ye are thereunto called; 3:13 be FOLLOWERS of that which is good; 3:15 sanctify the Lord GOD in your hearts; 3:16 they speak evil OF YOU AS OF EVILDOERS; 3:18 Christ also hath once SUFFERED for sins...that he might bring US TO GOD; and 3:21 baptism doth also now save US."
The texts used by the modern versions, as opposed to the Majority and Textus Receptus, are Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, A (Alexandrinus), C, and P 72 - yet they constantly disagree with each other.
1 Peter 3:7 "as being HEIRS TOGETHER OF THE GRACE OF LIFE". Though most of the versions read the same here, the Alexandrian texts differ among themselves. P72 spells "heirs together" one way - συγκληρονόμοις, Sinaiticus another - συγκληρονόμους, and Vaticanus yet another way - συνκληρονόμοις. Then A and C differ from all the others - συγκληρονόμοι.
Instead of reading "the grace of life", P72 says "the grace of ETERNAL life" - χάριτος ζωῆς αἰωνίου; C omits "life"; and Sinaiticus and A read "the MANIFOLD grace of life" - ποικίλης χάριτος ζωῆς.
Keep in mind that these are the supposed "oldest and best" manuscripts upon which the modern versions are based.
3:8 BE COURTEOUS - philophrones -φιλόφρονες. This is the reading of the Majority of all Greek texts and the Traditional Textus Receptus. So read Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Wesley's N.T. 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Youngs 1898, the NKJV 1982, God's First Truth 1999, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, Bond Slave Version 2009, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Conservative Bible 2011.
However the Alexandrian texts read BE HUMBLE - tapeinophrones - ταπεινόφρονες. The NIV says: Be humble, and the NASB as "Be humble in spirit" though the words "in spirit" are not in any text. The ESV has "AND A HUMBLE MIND."
The Catholic Connection
The Catholic versions like the Catholic Douay-Rheims, St. Joseph New American bible 1970 read "HUMBLE" and the New Jerusalem bible 1885 has "and BE SELF-EFFACING". But they are all obviously following the UBS/Vatican Critical Greek text instead of the Traditional Reformation texts.
3:9 "KNOWING that ye are thereunto called." Again this is the Majority reading, but the Alexandrian texts omit the word "knowing" (eidotes).
1 Peter 3:13 "And who is he that will harm you, if ye BE FOLLOWERS of that which is good?"
"Be followers" is mimetai genesthe. This is the Majority reading, but the Alexandrian texts say: "if you BE ZEALOUS". However a closer look will show that Vaticanus alone spells the verb BE one way, Sinaiticus original another, and then Sinaiticus was corrected to read as does the Majority.
1 Peter 3:15 KJB - "But sanctify the Lord GOD in your hearts: and be ready always to give an answer to every man that asketh you a reason of the hope that is in you, with meekness and fear."
ESV (NIV, NASB, NET, Holman, ISV, All Catholic versions, the Jehovah Witness NWT) - " but in your hearts honor CHRIST the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason of the hope that is in you, yet do it with gentleness and respect."
The most obvious textual difference here between the King James Bible and the modern UBS/Vatican/Critical text versions is "the Lord GOD - κυριον δε τον θεον" versus "CHRIST the Lord - κυριον δε τον χριστον ".
The reading of CHRIST the Lord comes mainly from these same 5 Greek manuscripts that frequently differ among themselves - P72, Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, A and C.
The reading of "the Lord GOD - κυριον δε τον θεον" (KJB) is the Greek reading of the Majority of all remaining Greek texts and the Reformation Bibles.
The Catholic Connection
ALL the Catholic versions like the Douay-Rheims, St. Joseph NAB, New Jerusalem and the Latin Vulgate as well as the Jehovah Witness New World Translation follow the reading of "sanctify the Lord CHRIST". These include the ESV, RSV, NIV, NASB, NET, Common English Bible and the Holman Standard.
The Jehovah Witness New World Translation reads: "But sanctify the Christ as Lord in your hearts"
Bible translations that read like the KJB with "sanctify the Lord GOD" are Tyndale 1534 - “but sanctifie the Lorde GOD in youre hertes.”, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540 - “but sanctifye the Lorde GOD in youre hertes”, Matthew’s Bible 1549, the Bishops’ Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587 - “But sanctifie the Lord GOD in your hearts”, The Beza New Testament 1599, the Bill Bible 1671, Mace N.T. 1729, John Wesley N.T. 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, The Revised Translation 1815, the Thomson N.T. 1816, Webster’s translation 1833, the Dickenson N.T. 1833, the Pickering N.T. 1840, the Morgan N.T. 1848, The Commonly Received Version 1851, the Boothroyd Bible 1853, the Julia Smith Translation 1855, The Revised N.T. 1862, the Anderson N.T. 1865, The Emphatic Diaglott Bible 1865, the Smith Bible 1876, the Sharpe Bible 1883, the Dillard N.T. 1885, Youngs’ literal 1898, New Life Version 1969, the NKJV 1982, The Word of Yah 1993, KJV 21st Century 1994, Interlinear Greek 1997 (Larry Pierce), Third Millennium Bible 1998, The Koster Scriptures 1998, Lawrie Translation 1998, Analytical Literal Translation 1999, The Last Days Bible 1999, God's First Truth 1999, the Emphatic Diaglott New Testament, The World English Bible 2000, the Tomson N.T. 2002, Apostolic Polyglot Bible 2003, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, The Pickering N.T. 2005, the English Jubilee Bible 2010 - “sanctify the Lord GOD in your hearts”, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), the Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, Conservative Bible 2011, the 2012 Natural Israelite Bible - “But sanctify the Lord Yahweh in your hearts”, the Far Above All Translation 2011, the BRG Bible 2012, the World English Bible 2012 - "sanctify the Lord God in your hearts", The English Majority Text N.T. 2013, The Hebrew Names Version 2014, The Modern Literal N.T. 2014, and the Modern English Version 2014.
Among foreign language Bibles that read like the KJB’s Traditional Text are
the Modern Greek Bible - “αλλα αγιασατε Κυριον τον Θεον εν ταις καρδιαις υμων”,
And the Modern Hebrew Bible - “את יהוה אלהים אתו תקדישו בלבבכם והיו נכנים תמיד להשיב דבר בענוה וביראה לכל שאל אתכם חשבון התוחלת אשר בקרבכם׃”,
the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano de Valera 1602, R.V. Gómez 2010, the Spanish Reina Valeras 1909 - 1995 - “sino santificad al Señor DIOS en vuestros corazones,”, the Italian Diodati 1649 and La Nuova Diodati 1991 - “anzi santificate il Signore DIO nei vostri cuori”, the French Ostervald 1996 and the 2007 Louis Segond - “Mais sanctifiez dans vos cœurs le Seigneur DIEU.”, Luther’s German Bible 1545 and the 2000 German Schlachter bible - “Heiliget aber GOTT den HERRN in euren Herzen.”, the Portuguese A Biblia Sagrada 1681 - santificai ao Senhor Deus".
“sanctify the Lord GOD” is also the reading in the Hungarian Karoli Bible - “ Az Úr Istent pedig szenteljétek meg a ti szívetekben.”, the 2013 Updated Polish Gdansk Bible - “Lecz Pana Boga uświęcajcie w waszych sercach”, the Russian Synodal Version - “Господа Бога святите в сердцах ваших”, the 1998 Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos Bible - “ Ngunit pakabanalin ninyo ang Panginoong DIYOS sa inyong mga puso”, the Afrikaans Bible 1953 - “Maar heilig die Here GOD in julle harte en wees”, the Dutch Staten Vertaling Bible - “Maar heiligt GOD, den Heere, in uw harten”, the Finnish Bible 1776 - “Mutta pyhittäkäät Herra Jumala teidän sydämissänne.”, the 2014 Romanian Fidela Bible and the Smith and Van Dyke’s Arabic Bible - بل قدسوا الرب الاله في قلوبكم مستعدين دائما لمجاوبة كل من يسألكم عن سبب الرجاء الذي فيكم بوداعة وخوف
1 Peter 3:16 KJB "Having a good conscience; that, whereas THEY SPEAK EVIL OF YOU, AS OF EVILDOERS, they may be ashamed that falsely accuse your good conversation in Christ."
This is the Majority reading and the Traditional Reformation texts. Bibles that read "THEY SPEAK EVIL OF YOU, AS OF EVILDOERS" are Tyndale 1534, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Mace N.T. 1729, Wesley N.T. 1755, Worsley Version 1770, Webster's translation 1833, Young's 1898, The Word of Yah 1993, the Interlinear Greek 1997 (Larry Pierce), Lawrie Translation 1998, God's First Truth 1999, Tomson N.T. 2002, The Evidence Bible 2003, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005, Concordant Version 2006, Online Interlinear 2010 (André de Mol), Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010, the Far Above All Translation 2011, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Mebust), The World English Bible 2012 and the Modern English Version 2014.
However Vaticanus and P72 OMIT "of you, as of evildoers", and the verb found in these two is a passive verb as opposed to the majority active verb.
So the NASB follows Vaticanus and says: "and keep a good conscience so that in the thing in which YOU ARE SLANDERED (notice the passive voice, and the omission of "as of evildoers"), those who revile your good behavior in Christ may be put to shame."
But the complete reading in the active voice of "they speak evil of you as of evildoers" is found not only in the Majority, but also in Sinaiticus, A and C.
The NIV follows the texts that have an active verb, but still omits "of you as of evildoers", by saying: "those who speak maliciously (active verb) against your good behavior..." So the NIV is basically making up its own text. The UBS critical text is clearly using a PASSIVE verb.
1 Peter 3:18 KJB "For Christ also hath once SUFFERED FOR SINS, the just for the unjust, that he might bring US TO GOD, being put to death in the flesh, but quickened by the Spirit."
1 Peter 3:18 presents us with another classic case of where the "oldest and best" manuscripts are in total confusion, and so are the modern versions based on them.
People like James White who argue that each Christian has the responsibility to search out for himself what are the best texts and translations, end up with every man doing that which is right in his own eyes. The "scholars" constantly disagree among themselves; this results in no sure words of God and no final authority. Every Bible corrector becomes his own final authority. They are all looking at the same evidence, yet they arrive at different conclusions.
The phrase SUFFERED FOR SINS is composed of three words - peri hamartion EPATHE. 'Suffered'(epathe) is the reading of the Majority, the Textus Receptus, and Vaticanus. SUFFERED for sins is found in the KJB, NKJV, RV, ASV, NRSV, Holman Standard, and the ESV.
On the other hand, Sinaiticus, C, P72 and A read DIED (apethenen) instead of "suffered", and the versions that read DIED are the NASB, NIV and the RSV.
But Sinaiticus and C read "died for OUR sins", while A and P72 have "died for YOUR sins". So while the NASB, NIV reject the verb "suffered" found in Vaticanus and the Majority, they do not completely follow the conflicting manuscripts from which they get the verb "died"; they leave out either "our" or "your".
Then in the phrase "that he might bring US TO GOD", only Vaticanus omits the words "to God" (tw theo), and then Vaticanus and P72 say "bring YOU" instead of "bring US". But the reading of "bring US to God" is found in many copies, as well as A, C and Sinaiticus correction. The original Sinaiticus omitted the word altogether. If all this sounds confusing, that's because it is.
Now, let's compare the results of this confusion in the modern versions. Remember the NASB is a revision of the ASV and the ESV is a revision of the NRSV, which in turn is a revision of the RSV, and the TNIV is a revision of the old NIV.
SUFFERED for sins - KJB, NKJV, RV, ASV, NRSV, ESV, Holman, TNIV!
DIED for sins - NASB, NIV, RSV
Bring US to God - KJB, NKJV, RV, ASV, NASB, RSV, ESV
Bring YOU to God - NIV, NRSV, Holman, TNIV
Did you notice that between these two variant readings, neither the RSV, NRSV nor the ESV agree with each other, nor do the NASB, NIV, nor do the NIV and the TNIV? All these conflicting versions are put together by equally qualified men, examining the same evidence, yet they all differ in their conclusions. This is why few Christians today believe the Holy Bible is the inspired words of God. Did you ever wonder who might promote the question: "Yea, hath God said...?" (Genesis 3:1)
The message or the meaning is not the same "but in different words". Even when the same underlying texts are used, the meaning is totally different in hundreds of verses. It is funny to see the Bible correctors argue on the one hand that the message is the same in all bibles, and then attack the KJB for giving the wrong message!
1 Peter 3:21 KJB "The like figure whereunto even baptism doth now save US (not the putting away of the filth of the flesh, but the ANSWER OF a good conscience toward God,) by the resurrection of Jesus Christ."
Here "save US", which again is the Majority reading and that of C, is changed to "save YOU" in the NASB, NIV.
Admittedly 3:21 is a difficult passage and there are many interpretations, but clearly the meaning in all versions is not at all the same. Whether you view the baptism spoken of here as our baptism into Christ which took place when He was baptized into death at the cross and we were positionally in Him at the time (see Luke 12:50; Mark 10:38, Col. 2:12 and Rom. 6:4) or you see it as water baptism for the believer, the meaning of the rest of the sentence has been totally changed in many new versions.
"The ANSWER OF a good conscience towards God" is the reading of the KJB, NKJV, Hebrew Names Version, Jay Green's "literal" translation, Webster's, and the Third Millenium Bible.
The fact is we now have a good conscience towards God because of the finished work of Christ who put away our sins and hath forgiven us all trespasses. See Hebrews 9:9, 14; 10:2,22. It is because of Christ's redemptive work, we now have a good conscience.
However the NASB joins the RSV, ESV and says: "not the removal of dirt from the flesh, but AN APPEAL TO GOD FOR a good conscience", while the NIV has: "THE PLEDGE OF a good conscience toward God" - with a footnote in the Scofield NIV which says: "or Response of a good conscience".
So, are we answering or responding to God because we already have a good conscience (KJB), or are we asking for a good conscience (NASB), or are we pledging to keep a good conscience toward God? Clearly, the meaning is not the same in all versions.
1 Peter 4:1 - “Christ hath suffered FOR US.” Here the words “for us” are not found in Vaticanus and so omitted from the NIV, NASB, ESV, Holman, but the original Sinaiticus differs from Vaticanus and most others and says “for you” which is rejected. Sinaiticus has been corrected many times, and the second correction says “for us” like the KJB, but it is still rejected.
1 Peter 4:3 “the time past OF OUR LIFE may suffice US”, the “of our life” is missing from Sinaiticus & Vaticanus and so omitted from the NIV, NASB, and the US is omitted as well because not in Vaticanus, while Sinaiticus reads “you”.
1 Peter 4:14 - KJB "If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit OF GLORY AND OF GOD RESTETH upon you."
"the spirit OF GLORY AND OF GOD" is the reading of the Majority, TR, Vaticanus, P72, and the NASB, NIV. However Sinaiticus joins A and adds: "the spirit of glory, AND OF POWER, and of God resteth upon you." In fact, this is how the Catholic Douay version reads.
1 Peter 4:14 - KJB "If ye be reproached for the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the spirit of glory and of God resteth upon you: ON THEIR PART HE IS EVIL SPOKEN OF, BUT ON YOUR PART HE IS GLORIFIED."
ESV - "If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the spirit of glory* and of God rests upon you."
The words "ON THEIR PART HE IS EVIL SPOKEN OF, BUT ON YOUR PART HE IS GLORIFIED." are missing from the Vatican Versions like the NIV, NASB, RSV, ESV, ISV, NET, all Catholic versions (Douay, St. Joseph NAB, New Jerusalem bible 1985, Latin Vulgate, Clementine Vulgate), and the Jehovah Witness New World Translation because not in Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, A or P72.
What your modern day scholars will most likely fail to tell you is that of the four principle manuscripts that omit all these words (Sinaiticus, Vaticanus, A and P72) NONE of them agrees even with each other in this verse! All four of them read differently than each of the others.
For example, you will notice a Footnote in the ESV after the word "glory*". The ESV footnote reads "Some manuscripts insert AND OF POWER", so it would read "for the spirit of glory AND OF POWER and of God rests upon you."
Both Sinaiticus and (A) Alexandrinus add these extra words. In fact both the earlier Douay-Rheims 1582 and the 1950 Douay DO add the words "AND THE POWER" to the verse, but later Catholic versions like the St. Joseph NAB and New Jerusalem do not. But ALL the Catholic versions omit the words "ON THEIR PART HE IS EVIL SPOKEN OF, BUT ON YOUR PART HE IS GLORIFIED."
This whole phrase (κατα μεν αυτους βλασφημειται κατα δε υμας δοξαζεται) is found in the majority of all Greek manuscripts, as well as the Old Latin ar, p, q, r, t, z, some Syriac Harclean, the Coptic Sahidic, Boharic and Slavonic ancient versions.
It is also quoted by such early Christian writers as Cyprian in 258 A.D.* (See below) and by Theophylact.
It is also the reading found in Tyndale 1525 - "On their parte he is evyll spoken of: but on youre parte he is glorified.", Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, the Beza N.T. 1599, the KJB 1611, Whiston's N.T. 1745, Wesley's N.T. 1755, Worsley 1770, Thomas Haweis N.T. 1795, Julia Smith N.T. 1855, Darby 1890, Youngs 1898, the NKJV 1982, The Amplified Bible 1987, Third Millennium Bible 1998, Apostolic Bible Polyglot Greek 2003, A Conservative Version Interlinear 2005, Green's Literal 2005, Complete Apostles Bible 2005, American Bible Union N.T. 2008, Jubilee Bible 2010, Holy Scriptures VW Edition 2010 and the 2012 Natural Israelite Bible - "On their part He is blasphemed, but on your part He is glorified."
Other Bibles that include "ON THEIR PART HE IS EVIL SPOKEN OF, BUT ON YOUR PART HE IS GLORIFIED." are the Interlinear Greek N.T. 1997 (Larry Pierce), The Lawrie Translation 1998, The Koster Scriptures 1998, God's First Truth 1999, The Last Days Bible 1999, The Tomson N.T. 2002, The Resurrection Life N.T. 2005 (Vince Garcia), The Pickering N.T. 2005, the Bond Slave Version 2009, English Majority Text Version 2009, Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, the Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011, Interlinear Hebrew-Greek Scriptures 2012 (Mebust), The World English Bible 2012, The Hebrew Names Version 2014 and the Modern English Version 2014.
Among foreign language Bibles that include the words "ON THEIR PART HE IS EVIL SPOKEN OF, BUT ON YOUR PART HE IS GLORIFIED." are Luther's German bible 1545 and German Schlachter 2000 - "Bei ihnen ist er verlästert, aber bei euch ist er gepreiset.", the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano de Valera 1602, the Spanish Reina Valera 1909-1995, La Biblia de las Américas 1997 and Reina Valera Gómez 2010 - "Cierto, según ellos, él es blasfemado, mas según vosotros es glorificado.", the French Martin 1744, Ostervald 1996 and Louis Segond 2007 - "lequel est blasphémé par ceux qui vous noircissent mais pour vous vous le glorifies.", the Italian Diodati 1649, La Nuova Diodati 1991 and La Nuova Riveduta 2006 - "ben è egli, quant’è a loro, bestemmiato; ma, quant’è a voi, è glorification." and the Dutch Staten Vertaling - "Wat hen aangaat, Hij wordt wel gelasterd, maar wat u aangaat, Hij wordt verheerlijkt."
The whole phrase is also found in the Tagalog Ang Salita ng Diyos Bible 2008 - "Sa ganang kanila, siya ay inalipusta, ngunit sa ganang inyo siya ay pinarangalan.", the Czech Bible Kralicka - "kterémužto z strany jich zajisté rouhání se děje, ale z strany vaší oslavován bývá.", Finnish Bible 1776, the Russian Synodal Bible - "Теми Он хулится, а вами прославляется.", the Smith & van Dyke Arabic Bible - ان عيّرتم باسم المسيح فطوبى لكم لان روح المجد والله يحل عليكم. اما من جهتهم فيجدّف عليه واما من جهتكم فيمجد., the 2014 Romanian Fidela Bible - " din partea lor este vorbit de rău dar din partea voastră este glorificat. ", the Afrikaans Bible 1953 - "Wat hulle betref, word Hy wel gelaster; maar wat julle betref, word Hy verheerlik.", the Hungarian Karoli Bible - "a mit amazok káromolnak ugyan, de ti dicsõítitek azt."
the Modern Greek Bible - "κατα μεν αυτους βλασφημειται, κατα δε υμας δοξαζεται."
and the Modern Hebrew Bible - אם יחרפו אתכם למען שם המשיח אשריכם כי נחה עליכם רוח הכבוד רוח אלהים אצלם מנאץ הוא ואצלכם נכבד׃
The Writings of Cyprian - Bishop of Carthage - 200-258 A.D.
translated by Robert Ernest Wallis
Peter also, His apostle, has taught that persecutions occur for the sake of our being proved, and that we also should, by the example of righteous men who have gone before us, be joined to the love of God by death and sufferings. For he wrote in his epistle, and said, "Beloved, think it not strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try yon, nor do ye fall away, as if some new thing happened unto you; but as often as ye partake in Christ's sufferings, rejoice in all things, that when His glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy. If ye be reproached in the name of Christ, happy are ye; for the name of the majesty and power of the Lord resteth on you, WHICH INDEED ON THEIR PART IS BLASPHEMED, BUT ON OUR PART IS GLORIFIED."
Once again, it is a choice between the Reformation Bible text or the Vatican Versions.
1 Peter 5:2 - KJB "Feed the flock of God which is among you, TAKING THE OVERSIGHT THEREOF, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind."
NASB 1960 -1973 (7 editions) "Shepherd the flock of God among you, but not under compulsion, but voluntarily, ACCORDING TO THE WILL OF GOD; and not for sordid gain, but with eagerness."
NASB 1977 & 1995 editions - "Shepherd the flock of God among you, EXERCISING OVERSIGHT and not under compulsion, but voluntarily, ACCORDING TO THE WILL OF GOD, and not for sordid gain, but with eagerness."
RSV 1946, 1952, 1971 - “Tend the flock of God that is your charge [a], not by constraint but willingly, [b] not for shameful gain but eagerly” Footnotes:
[a] 1 Peter 5:2 Other ancient authorities add EXERCISING THE OVERSIGHT
[b] 1 Peter 5:2 Other ancient authorities add AS GOD WOULD HAVE YOU
ESV (the revision of the RSV) 2001-2011 - "Shepherd the flock of God that is among you EXERCISING OVERSIGHT, not under compulsion, but willingly AS GOD WOULD HAVE YOU, not for shameful gain, but eagerly."
Jehovah Witness New World Translation 1961 edition - "Shepherd the flock of God in your care, not under compulsion but willingly, neither for love of dishonest gain, but eagerly."
Jehovah Witness New World Translation 2013 edition - "Shepherd the flock of God under your care, SERVING AS OVERSEERS, not under compulsion, but willingly BEFORE GOD; not for love of dishonest gain, but eagerly.”
The phrase "taking the oversight thereof" (ἐπισκοποῦντες) is omitted by the NASB from 1960 to 1973, and the RSV because it is not in Sinaiticus original or Vaticanus, but the phrase is included in the NIV, RV, ASV, NRSV and the ESV because it is in the Majority, A, Sinaiticus correction and P72.
Westcott and Hort as well as the older Nestles Critical text (4th edition 1934 and 21st edition 1975) omitted the phrase "TAKING THE OVERSIGHT THEREOF" (ἐπισκοποῦντες) but now the UBS/Nestle-Aland/Vatican text puts it back [in brackets], and the newer NASBs now include the reading along with the Holman, ESV and NIV.
By the way, Vaticanus omits the entire next verse: "Neither as being lord's over God's heritage, but being examples to the flock." But it is found in all the others, including Sinaiticus, and this time the modern versions follow the Sinaiticus reading and include the whole verse.
1 Peter 5:2 - "not by constraint, but willingly". This is the reading of the Majority and Vaticanus. The RSV also reads as does the KJB, but later the NRSV, and now the ESV have added the words:"AS GOD WOULD HAVE YOU", which is literally "according to God" (κατὰ θεόν and is how the Catholic Douay-Rheims actually reads) and this reading is taken from P72, A and Sinaiticus, and this time the ESV, NASB, NIV, NET and Holman add them too, thus rejecting Vaticanus and the Majority of all texts.
NO new textual evidence has been discovered or dug up from the sand of Egypt; it has always been the same. They just changed their minds and brought these modern versions into conformity with the Catholic versions like the Douay-Rheims, Douay, St. Joseph New American bible 1970 and the New Jerusalem bible 1985.
The Catholic versions like the Douay-Rheims, include both readings and say: "Feed the flock of God which is among you, TAKING CARE OF IT, (ἐπισκοποῦντες) not by constraint but willingly, ACCORDING TO GOD: (κατὰ θεόν) not for filthy lucre’s sake but voluntarily"
And the modern Vatican Version scholars like to call these shenanigans the "science" of textual criticism. The NIVs have not changed their underlying Greek text, but they did change their English translation.
The NIVs 1973, 1978 and 1982 editions read: "Be shepherds of God's flock that is under your care, SERVING AS OVERSEERS, not because you must, but because you are willing AS GOD WANTS YOU TO BE (κατὰ θεόν), NOT GREEDY FOR MONEY, but eager to serve"
But the NIV 2011 changed this to: "Be shepherds of God's flock that is under your care, WATCHING OVER THEM, not because you must, but you are willing AS GOD WANTS YOU TO BE (κατὰ θεόν) NOT PURSUING DISHONEST GAIN, but eager to serve."
1 Peter 5:2 - Agreeing with King James Bible and the Traditional Reformation Bible text that includes "TAKING THE OVERSIGHT THEREOF" (ἐπισκοποῦντες) and do NOT have the extra words κατὰ θεόν (literally "according to God" which is paraphrased in most modern Vatican Versions by adding verbs and direct objects that are not found in any text) are the following Bible translations: Tyndale 1525, Coverdale 1535, the Great Bible 1540, Matthew's Bible 1549, the Bishops' Bible 1568, the Geneva Bible 1587, Mace N.T. 1729, Wesley N.T. 1755, Worsley N.T. 1770, Living Oracles 1835, Noyes Translation 1869, Darby 1890, Youngs 1898, the NKJV 1982, Analytical Literal Translation 1999, Apostolic Bible Polyglot Greek 2003, A Conservative Version Interlinear 2005, J.P. Green's literal 2008, Robinson-Pierpoint Greek N.T., KJV 21st Century 1994, the Third Millennium Bible 1998 - "feed the flock of God which is among you, taking the oversight of them, not by constraint but willingly, not for filthy lucre but out of a ready mind", the Jubilee Bible 2010, the International Standard Version 1998, and the 2012 Natural Israelite Bible.
Foreign language Bibles that follow the same texts as the King James Bible and read the same are Luther's German bible 1545, German Schlachter 2000, the Italian Diodati 1649 and La Nuova Diodati 1991 - "pascete il gregge di Dio che è fra voi, sorvegliandolo non per forza, ma volentieri, non per avidità di guadagno ma di buona volontà", the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano do Valera 1602, Reina Valera 1909-1995 - "apacentad la grey de Dios que está entre vosotros, cuidando de ella, no por fuerza, sino voluntariamente; no por ganancia deshonesta, sino con ánimo pronto", the French Martin 1744 and Ostervald 1996 "Paissez le troupeau de Dieu qui est au milieu de vous, veillant sur lui, non par contrainte, mais volontairement; non pour un gain honteux, mais par affection", the Portuguese Almeida Corregida 1681 - "Apascentai o rebanho de Deus, que está entre vós, tendo cuidado dele, näo por força, mas voluntariamente; nem por torpe ganáncia, mas de ánimo pronto", the Modern Greek Bible ποιμανατε το μεταξυ σας ποιμνιον του Θεου, επισκοπουντες μη αναγκαστικως αλλ' εκουσιως, μηδε αισχροκερδως αλλα προθυμως and the Modern Hebrew Bible רעו את עדר האלהים אשר בידכם והשגיחו עליהם לא באנס כי אם בנדבה אף לא עקב בצע כי אם בנפש חפצה׃
So, once again, it comes down to the Reformation Bible text versus the ever changing Vatican Versions that nobody believes are the inerrant and sure words of the living God.
1 Peter 5:10 - KJB "But the God of all grace, who hath called US unto his eternal glory by Christ JESUS”. Here "called US" is in many manuscripts, Geneva, Great, Bishops, NKJV, Spanish, Douay, and Lamsa's, yet the NIV, NASB read "called YOU".
JESUS is omitted by both the NIV/NAS because it is not in Sinaiticus or Vaticanus, but it is found in the older P72, A, and the Majority. You see, the modern versions don’t always follow the oldest manuscripts.
1 Peter 5:11 - "To him be GLORY AND dominion for ever AND EVER". This is the reading of Tyndale, Coverdale, Bishops', Geneva Bible, NKJV, Hebrew Names Version, Lamsa's translation of the Syriac, Young's, Spanish Reina Valera and many others. The words "Glory and" are in Sinaiticus but not in Vaticanus and so is omitted by the NIV, NASB, RSV, ESV while the second “and ever” is not in Vaticanus or P72, yet it is in Sinaiticus, and so is "scientifically" included in the NAS/NIV/ESV, BUT the Holman omits it. Back and forth, back and forth, now one, and now the other.
1 Peter 5:14 - "Peace be with you all that are in Christ JESUS. AMEN." JESUS is found in Sinaiticus but not in Vaticanus so the NIV/NAS omit it. The AMEN is found in Sinaiticus, and the older P72, but not in Vaticanus, and the NIV/NAS this time follow Vaticanus and omit it.
As you can easily see, the so called "oldest and best" manuscripts continually disagree with each other, and the new versions go willy-nilly back and forth, sometimes choosing one and then the other reading. Confusion and uncertainty and Bible Babel are the inevitable result.
You need to ask yourself a very serious and weighty question. Do you believe God has preserved His infallible words? If so, where are they today?
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