1 Kings 10:28 - "linen yarn" or "Kue" or "droves" or "goods"
1 Kings 10:28 KJB - "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and LINEN YARN: the king's merchants received the LINEN YARN at a price."
The parallel verse in 2 Chronicles 1:16 also reads: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and LINEN YARN; the king's merchants received the LINEN YARN at a price."
NKJV - 1 Kings 10:28 - "And Solomon had horses imported from Egypt and KEVEH; the king's merchants bought them in KEVEH at the current price."
ESV (NIV) - 1 Kings 10:28 "And Solomon's import of horses was from Egypt AND KUE, the king's traders received them FROM KUE at a price."
There are many anti King James Bible sites on the internet which make lists of supposed errors in the Holy Bible.
Al Maxey is a Minister of the Church of Christ. He is now in Alamogordo New Mexico, but has moved around a bit from one ministry to another six times. He presently uses the ever changing NIV and criticizes the King James Bible.
Mr. Maxey is a typical Bible agnostic who had NO inerrant and 100% true Bible in any language he believes in, but has made his own mind and understanding his "final authority" (subject to change at any moment) and is now using one of the new Vatican Versions to "correct" the King James Bible. So let's look at Mr. Maxey's personal list of all time hits, and see if there is any merit to them.
ARCHAEOLOGICAL INACCURACIES IN THE KJV
“The translators of the KJV lived and worked about 400 years ago. This is a considerable length of time, especially considering the many important discoveries made since then. These discoveries have shed light on areas of the text that they simply did not understand at the time. Through their lack of knowledge they made many unintentional errors in the text.”
Our Bible corrector, Al Maxey, comments: "In I Kings 10:28 the word "Kue" is translated "linen yarn" in the KJV. This is INCORRECT. Actually, "Kue" was a location in Cilicia where Solomon purchased his horses. This is a fact which has been verified by archaeologists, but of which the KJV translators were painfully unaware." [End of Al Maxey's comments]
Here is a man who trusts the "archaeologists" to inform him of what is historic truth and to "correct" Gods Book. Most archeologists have had a consistent track record of always discovering the truth and bringing to light the hidden things of darkness, right?
Mr. Maxey accuses the KJB translators of being "painfully unaware", but he has THE REAL explanation to give us after we were left in ignorance for so long. Well, we shall see if other "scholars" agree with him. Again, there is a wide variety of opinions and translations.
This Bible corrector insists we shoud translate this word as "Kue", according to his own understanding. But not all other "scholars" are at all in agreement with him about this.
The NKJV says KEVAH, the NASB has KOE, while the NIV and ESV have KUE. The King James Bible translators were obviously aware of this possible translation since the Latin Vulgate, Wycliffe 1395, Coverdale 1535 and the Catholic Douay-Rheims 1610 read this way - "And horses were brought for Solomon out of Egypt, and COA: for the king's merchants brought them out of COA, and bought them at a set price." - Douay-Rheims 1610
Others have translated this word in an entirely different manner. The Judaica Press Tanach 2004 - “And the source of Solomon's horses was from Egypt and AN ASSEMBLAGE. The agents of the king, would buy the ASSEMBLAGE PRIVILEGES for a price.”
The 1936 Jewish translation (Hebrew Publishing Company) says "and the king's merchants bought them IN TROOPS, each TROOP at a certain price."
The Revised Version 1881, the ASV 1901 and the World English Bible 2000 all say: “And the horses which Solomon had were brought out of Egypt; and the king's merchants received THEM IN DROVES, EACH DROVE at a price.”
The Amplified Bible 1987 also reads “droves”, and not ‘linen yarn’ and nor “Kue” nor "Koe", nor "Keveh".
Rotherham’s Emphasized bible 1902 read: “And the horses that Solomon had were, AN EXPORT, out of Egypt, - and, a company of the merchants of the king, used to fetch, A DROVE, at a price.”
Darby’s translation 1890 reads: “And the exportation of horses that Solomon had was from Egypt: A CARAVAN the king's merchants fetched A DROVE [of horses], at a price.”
A Conservative Version 2005 - "And the king's merchants received them in HERDS, each HERD at a price."
The 2010 New Heart English Bible (a critical text version) says: "and the king's merchants received them in DROVES, each DROVE at a price."
Luther’s German bible 1545 comes out to: “And one brought the Salomon horse from Egypt and ALL KINDS OF GOODS, and the sales people of the king bought THE SAME GOODS.”
There are other Bible translations that agree with the King James Bible reading of "linen yarn". Among these are the Bishop's Bible 1568 "Also Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and FINE LINNEN: the kinges marchauntes receaued the LINNEN for a price.", the Geneva Bible 1599 - "Also Salomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and FINE LINEN: the Kings marchants receiued THE LINEN for a price.", The Bill Bible 1671, Webster's 1833 translation, The Ancient Hebrew Bible 1907 - "the kings merchants received THE LINEN YARN at a price", the KJV 21st Century Version 1994, The Word of Yah 1993, The Revised Webster Bible 1995, the Third Millennium Bible 1998, The Revised Geneva Bible 2005, the Apostolic Bible 2006 (Charles Van der Pool), the Bond Slave Version 2009, the English Jubilee Bible 2010 - "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt and LINEN YARN, for the king’s merchants bought the horses and YARN.", the Hebraic Transliteration Scripture 2010, the Biblos Interlinear Bible 2011 - "And king Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, AND LINEN YARN." and A Conservative Version 2011 - "and LINEN YARN", and The Holy Bible, Modern English Version 2014 - “Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt along with LINEN YARN.. The king’s merchants received the LINEN YARN at a price.”
This online Interlinear Hebrew Old Testament - "linen yarn"
Among foreign language Bibles that also read "LINEN YARN" like the KJB are including the Italian Diodati - "del re prendevano il filo a certo prezzo." = "of the king took THE THREAD at a certain price", the Dutch Staten Vertaling bible (het linnen garen), the Spanish Sagradas Escrituras 1569, Cipriano de Valera 1602, the Reina Valera 1909 - 1995 (lienzos), the Spanish Jubilee Bible 2000 - "Y sacaban caballos y LIENZOS a Salomón de Egipto; porque la compañía de los mercaderes del rey compraban caballos y LIENZOS.", The Portuguese Almeida Corrigida E Fiel 1997 - “E traziam do Egito, para Salomäo, cavalos E FIO DE LINHO; e os mercadores do rei recebiam O FIO DE LINHO, por um certo preço.”, and the Czech Kralicka Bible - “nebo kupci královští brávali koupě rozličné za slušnou mzdu” = “ the king's merchants would take YARN at a decent wage."
and The Modern Greek Bible - Εγινετο δε εις τον Σολομωντα εξαγωγη ιππων και λινου νηματος εξ Αιγυπτου· το μεν νημα ελαμβανον οι εμποροι του βασιλεως εις ωρισμενην τιμην. = LINEN YARN” λινου νηματος
Other foreign language translations that also have "LINEN YARN" are the Russian Synodal Version - “Коней же царю Соломону приводили из Египта и из Кувы; царские купцы покупали их из Кувы за деньги.” = “Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and LINEN YARN; the king's merchants received THE LINEN YARN for money.”, the Romanian Fidela Bible 2014 - “comercianţii împăratului primeau inul împletit cu un preţ.” = “the king's merchants received THE LINEN WOVEN with a price.”, the Danish Bible - “Kongens Handelsfolk købte dem i Kove.” = “The king's merchants received THE LINEN YARN.”, the Afrikaans Bible 1953 - “handelaars van die koning het dit uit Kwé gaan haal teen koopprys. = “merchants of the king's LINEN YARN at a price.”, the Chinese Union Traditional Bible - “所 羅 門 的 馬 是 從 埃 及 帶 來 的 ， 是 王 的 商 人 一 群 一 群 按 著 定 價 買 來 的 。= “the king's merchants received THE LINEN YARN at a price bought”., Croatian Bible - “ kraljevi nabavljači uvozili su ih iz Koe za određenu svotu.” = “the king imported from them YARN at a price.”, Lithuanian Bible - “Saliamonas parsigabendavo žirgų iš Egipto ir Kevės.” = “Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and LINEN YARN.”, Albanian Bible - “Kuajt e Salomonit importoheshin nga Egjipti dhe nga Kue; tregtarët e mbretit shkonin e i merrnin në Kue me një çmim të caktuar.” = “Solomon horses out of Egypt, and LINEN YARN; the king's merchants received the LINEN YARN at a price.”
Archeology is equally on the side of the KJV translators, for ancient Egypt is known for its massive linen exports. Proverbs 7:16 and Ezekiel 27:7 indicate that Egyptian linen was favoured in the ancient world. In a passage that catalogues King Solomon’s collection of the best materials for the temple, it may be unusual if the passage does not mention the import of Egyptian linen. 2 Chronicles 2:14 mentions that linen was one of the materials used for the temple.
The Commentaries as well as the Bible translations are all over the board regarding what this Hebrew words means and how it should be translated. To give you some idea of the diversity of opinions, we will look at what some have said.
The Pulpit Commentary lists several totally different meanings that have been held over the centuries. Mr. Maxey's assertion that the KJB translators were "painfully unaware" of these distinctions it totally untrue.
The Pulpit Commentary notes: "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price. THIS IS A DIFFICULT PASSAGE, and the difficulty lies in the word מִקְוֶה, here rendered "linen yarn." Elsewhere the word signifies, a congregation, or gathering …Consequently, Gesenius with Vatablus would here interpret, “COMPANY."… Somewhat similarly Bahr: "and as to horses... and their COLLECTION” BUT THIS AGAIN IS STRAINED AND ARTIFICIAL…PERHAPS it is safer to see in the word the name of a place. The LXX. (similarly the Vulgate) renders, "from Egypt and from Thekoa," καὶ ἐκ θεκουὲ, which Keil, however, contends is manifestly a variation of an older reading, καὶ ἐκ Κουὲ, "and from Κουα." AS TO KOA OR KOVA, IT IS OBJECTED THAT NO SUCH PLACE IS MENTIONED elsewhere, and it is alleged that if it were a market for horses, or even if it were a frontier station, where the duties on horses were collected, we should surely have heard of it again. BUT THIS IS BY NO MEANS CERTAIN.”
Adam Clarke’s Commentary - “And linen yarn - The original word, מקוה (mikveh), is HARD TO BE UNDERSTOOD, IF IT BE NOT INDEED A CORRUPTION. THE VERSIONS ARE ALL PUZZLED WITH IT.”
Kretzmann Popular Commentary - “And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, which was noted for its fine horses, AND LINEN YARN, LITERALLY, “A TROOP, A MULTITUDE” ; the king's merchants received the LINEN YARN at a price, every troop, or shipment, was delivered at a certain contracted price.”
John Gill - "And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt,.... To mount his horsemen with, and draw his chariots and linen yarn; the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price; OR RATHER LINEN ITSELF, OR LINEN GARMENTS, as Ben Gersom; LINEN being the staple commodity of Egypt. The word rendered "linen yarn" signifies a confluence or collection of waters and other things; and the words may be rendered, "as for the collection, the king's merchants received the collection at a price"; that is, the collection of horses, a large number of them got together for sale."
Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible - “The word translated “linen yarn” is thought now by Hebraists to mean “a troop” or “company.” If the present reading is retained, they would translate the passage - “As for the bringing up of Solomon‘s horses out of Egypt, a band of the king‘s merchants fetched a band (or troop) of horses at a price.” BUT THE READING IS VERY UNCERTAIN.”
Matthew Henry - "LINEN YARN in 2 Chronicles 1:16- It is the wisdom of princes to promote industry and encourage trade in their dominions. Perhaps Solomon took the hint of setting up the LINEN-manufacture, bringing LINEN YARN out of Egypt, working it into cloth, and then sending that to other nations."
Matthew Henry continues: "2 Chronicles 1:16 And Solomon had horses brought out of Egypt, and linen yarn: the king's merchants received the linen yarn at a price... linen yarn. The word miqvˆ or miqvˆh is regarded by the ancient translators as a proper name: the LXX. have “from Tekoa,” the Vulgate, de Coa, ”from Koa,” which is adopted by Dr. Geddes; Bochart THINKS IT SIGNIFIES A TRIBUTE; OTHERS SUPPOSE that it signifies a string or DROVE of horses, OR AS JARCHI SAYS, what the Germans call Gtutte, A STUD; BUT Houbigant SUPPOSES it to be A CORRUPTION FOR for mercavah, “CHARIOTS”.
OUR ENGLISH TRANSLATION, HOWEVER, which regards it as synonymous with tikwah, SEEMS BY FAR THE BEST. According to Norden, LINEN YARN is still one of the principal articles of commerce in Egypt, and is exported in very large quantities, together with unmanufactured flax and spun cotton; and Sanutus, 400 years ago, remarked that though Christian countries abounded in flax, yet the goodness of the Egyptian was such, that it was dispersed even to the west."
Cambridge Bible for Schools and Colleges - “and linen yarn] The word (מקוה) mikveh so translated, is derived from a verb which implies ‘a stringing together,’ and a kindred noun (תקוה) tikvah, is used (Joshua 2:18) for the line of scarlet cord which Rahab was ordered to bind in her window. FROM THIS CONNEXION THE RENDERING OF THE A.V. IS DERIVED."
Matthew Poole’s Commentary - “Horses and LINEN YARN; the two chief commodities of Egypt. The king’s merchants received the LINEN YARN for a price; Solomon received them from Pharaoh at a certain price agreed between them, and gave this privilege to his merchants, for a tribute to be paid to him out of it.”
Benson’s Commentary on the Old and New Testaments - “The king’s merchants received the LINEN YARN at a price — Agreed on between Pharaoh and Solomon, who gave this privilege to his merchants for a tribute to be paid out of this commodity. MOST THINK BYSSUS, FINE LINEN, IS HERE MEANT, one of the principal of the Egyptian merchandises.”
So Mr. Bible Corrector, we can either believe that the English speaking people of the world have been blessed by God with an infallible and 100% true Bible in our own language for the past 400 years, OR we can believe that you labor under an inflated view of your own personal opinion (which many of equal if not superior learning disagree with) and that you have NO complete and infallible Bible in any language to either believe in yourself or to give to anybody else.
Can you guess which of these two options I and many others are gonna go with?
All of grace, believing The Book - the Authorized King James Holy Bible.
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